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Standard Specifications

Public Utilities Board

Drainage Department
Index to Standard Specification for Drainage Work
3rd Edition July 2002

Part 1- General

1 General Description
2 Measurement Of Settlement
3 Working With Other Contractors
4 Existing Service
5 Access
6 Flow Of Traffic
7 Information
8 Discrepancies
9 Working Space
10 Site Surveying Work
11 Bench Mark
12 Electricity Supply
13 Office For S.O.
14 Contractor's Plant
15 Continuous Working And Overtime
16 Flow Through Drain And Canal
17 Pollution Control Measures And Prevention Of Mosquito Breeding
18 Rate Of Excavation And Drain Construction
19 Safeguarding Properties Adjacent To Site
20 Method Of Working
21 Cofferdam And Temporary Tidegates
22 Preservation Of Trees, Vegetations And Top Soil
23 Concreting Programme
24 Protection Of Work
25 Demolition And Making Good
26 Structural Test
27 Prevention Of Flotation
28 Inspection And Replacement Of Defective Work
29 Reinstatement Of Surface
30 Reinstatement Of Foundation And Road Surface
31 Nominated Sub-Contractor And Other Supplier

PartII - Material

32 Standard Of Material
33 Sample Of Material
34 Timber
35 Timber Preservative
36 Bakau Pile
37 Cement
38 Concreting Aggregate
39 Water
40 Reinforcement
41 Structural Steel
42 Testing Of Steel
43 Dowel Bar
44 Waterproof Paper
45 Expansion Jointing Material
46 Joint Sealing Compound
47 Water Bar
48 Requirements On Precast Concrete Units
49 Prestressed Concrete Slab
50 Concrete Pipe (Ordinary Portland Cement) Without Lining
51 Sand
52 Granular Material
53 Quarry Rid
54 Stone For Pitching
55 Hardcore
56 Brick
57 Grating & Chequer Plates For Closed Drain/Culvert
58 Aluminium Rungs
59 Handrailing
60 Paint
61 Erosion Control Blankets

Part III - Workmanship

62 Workmanship Generally
63 Excavation Generally
64 Trial Holes
65 Trial Boring
66 Excavation In Rock
67 Excessive Excavation
68 Preventing Damage Due Subsidence
69 Timbering Of Excavation
70 Timbering Left-In
71 Steel Trench Sheeting
72 Steel Sheet Piling
73 Liability For Timbering
74 Drainage
75 Ventilation
76 Approval Of Excavation
77 Backfilling
78 Withdrawal Of Timbering
79 Disposal Of Surplus Excavated Materials And Unwanted Materials
80 Filling And Embankment Work
81 Cutting
82 Bakau Piling
83 Other Pile

Concrete

84 Storage Of Cement
85 Testing Of Cement
86 Sample Of Aggregate
87 Storage Of Aggregates
88 Batching Of Concrete
89 Mix Proportion
90 Trial Mix
91 Site Testing Of Aggregate
92 Workability & Consistency Of Concrete
93 Testing Of Concrete Cube
94 Mixing Concrete
95 Premix And Ready-Mixed Concrete
96 Concreting Programme
97 Handling And Transporting Concrete
98 Placing Concrete
99 Compaction Of Concrete
100 Concreting Through Water
101 Finish Of Concrete
102 Protection And Curing Of Concrete
103 Tests On Hardened Concrete
104 Concrete Additive
105 Granolithic Concrete
106 Hardcore
107 Construction Joint
108 Permanent Joint

Reinforcement

109 Bending Reinforcement
110 Fixing Reinforcement
111 Fixing Fabric Reinforcement
112 Protecting Reinforcement

Shuttering

113 Formwork
114 Removal Of Formwork
115 Boxing Or Cutting Out
116 Building And Grouting In
117 Bonding Ties

Brickwork, Plaster and Tiling

118 Brickwork
119 Mortar
120 Setting Out
121 Bonding Brickwork
122 Reinforced Brickwork
123 Pointing
124 Block Wall
125 Putlog Holes
126 Defective Work
127 Mortice, Hole, Chase, Etc
128 Damp Proof Course
129 Preparation Of Surface For Rendering And Screeding
130 Cement Mortar Rendering
131 Waterproof Cement Mortar Rendering
132 Shanghai Plaster
133 Floor Tiling Screed

Pipe Conduit Drain

134 Setting Out
135 Pipe Bedding With Granular Material
136 Concrete Bed, Haunching And Surround To Pipe
137 Handling Pipe
138 Pipelaying
139 Jointing Concrete Pipe
140 Cement Mortar
141 Fracture Of Pipe

Painting

142 Painting Generally
143 Painting Metal Surfaces
144 Painting Cement And Sand Plaster Surfaces
145 General Requirements

Road

146 Excavation To Formation
147 Preparation Of Sub-Grade
148 Kerb
149 Sub-Base And Base
150 Asphaltic Wearing Course
151 Tack Coat
152 Premix Surfacing

Turfing

153 Top Soil
154 Grass

Completion Work

155 Cleaning Up
156 Final Inspection
157 Maintenance Period Inspection

Appendix "A"
Requirement for Permanent Reinstatement

1 Application
2 Requirement
3 Advice Of Commencement Of Work
4 Obstruction
5 Lighting, Watching & Protection
6 Supply Of Granite
7 Hotmix Asphalt
8 Material For Hotmix Asphalt
9 Asphalt Mixing And Delivery
10 Extend Of Permanent Reinstatement
11 Complete Reinstatement In Roads
12 Partial Reinstatement In Road
13 Maintenance Of Trenches Prior To Permanent Reinstatement
14 Excavation & Backfilling
15 Removal Of All Excavated Material
16 Roller And Rolling
17 Base Course
18 Tack Coat
19 Hotmix Asphalt Surfacing
20 Top Soiling And Turfing
21 Reinstatement Of Drains & Precast Unit
22 Concrete For Reinstatement Work
23 Reinstatement Of Other Surface
24 Inspection Of Completion Work
25 Maintenance Of Surface

Part I - General

1 General Description

(a) The Contractor shall note that the description of the Works embraced in the Contract, as given in the Contract Specification, is a guide and he shall make all necessary checks and investigations to ascertain the actual nature and scope of work.

(b) It must be clearly and definitely understood by the Contractor that he will be deemed to have visited the whole of the site and ascertained the nature of the area, accessibility to the work site, location of the site accommodation, etc. The Contractor will be held solely responsible for making all the detailed arrangements and co-ordinating with the owners of all lands when he executes any part of the works that enter or affect such land.

(c) The Contractor is advised that it will be deemed to be his sole responsibility to ascertain for himself the extent of work that is required to be done on site and to generally obtain his own information on all matters affecting the complete execution of the Works to the entire satisfaction of the S.O. as no claim for extras, in consequence of any alleged ignorance in any respect, will be entertained by the Board.

(d) Although various buildings, sewers, drains, etc may be shown on the drawings, the Contractor will be held solely responsible for making his own investigations and for allowing for any extra costs in his rates due to the presence of all obstructions, whether indicated on the drawings or not.

2 Measurement of Settlement

Measurement of settlement shall conform to S.S. CP4. For each test, two signed copies of the field readings and the graphs shall be submitted to the S.O. within 3 working days on completion of the test.

3 Working with other Contractors

The Contractor is advised that there may be other Contractors working within the site area. The Contractor may therefore be given joint possession in some sections of sites with the other Contractors for the purpose of carrying out his contractual obligation and he shall in no way interfere with, impede or otherwise prevent these other Contractors from carrying out their contractual obligations. The Contractor shall allow in his prices, when tendering, for affording reasonable facilities to the other Contractors and for any interference with his work from these other contract operations.

4 Existing Service

The Contractor shall take all due care and necessary precautionary measures to ensure that no damage occurs to any existing sewer, water or gas mains, electricity or telephone cables, culvert and any other existing services. Any damage arising out of the Contractor's work in such respect will be made good to the entire satisfaction of the S.O. by the Contractor at his own expense and no claim to the contrary will be entertained by the Board.

5 Access

(a) The Contractor will be held solely responsible for maintaining clean, safe, adequate and free pedestrian and vehicular access to the various premises adjacent to the Works. The Contractor shall maintain clean, safe, adequate and free passageway along routes within the working space.

(b) The Contractor will also be required to provide facilities to the working site or sites. Such access must be properly constructed and maintained to afford a safe access to pedestrians and vehicles. The access may be made available to any other Contractors and supervisory staff on the instructions of the S.O..

6 Flow of Traffic

(a) The Contractor shall ensure that the flow of traffic on the roads and access is maintained at all times during the contract. The Contractor is to provide such flagmen, approved signs and signalling equipment as may be necessary day and night to control the traffic to the satisfaction of the S.O. and the appropriate Controlling Authority. In the planning and execution of any temporary or permanent works which may affect the traffic flow and/or access to site or other properties, the Contractor shall co-operate closely with the S.O. and the appropriate Controlling Authority.

(b) Whenever required by the S.O., the Contractor shall remove with due compliance and at his own expense any plant, machinery, staging and other materials which may interfere with traffic and the use of roads, footpaths or open spaces on the site or adjacent thereto.

7 Information

Such information as is known to this Department will be made available to the Contractor. The Board does not, however, extend any guarantee as to the accuracy of such information.

8 Discrepancies

Should there be any discrepancies among the Drawings, Specifications and Bills of Quantities, the Contractor shall refer the matter to the S.O. before commencement of work. The S.O. will decide as to which document will take precedence and his decision will be final. No claims to the contrary shall be entertained by the Board.

9 Working Space

(a) The Contractor is required to confine his working areas within the worksite and not to encroach onto adjacent properties. The Contractor is to note that he is required to procure for himself at his own costs any additional working and storage spaces. (b) The Contractor shall ensure that the movement of his vehicles in and out of the site shall not hamper the free flow of vehicular and pedestrian traffic. (c) The Contractor shall take every precaution to prevent his employees from trespassing on lands outside the contract site. (d) The Contractor shall ensure that the area and access under use is properly maintained and that they would be reinstated to their original state upon completion of the work all to the entire satisfaction of the S.O..

10 Site Surveying Work

10.1 General

(a) The Contractor shall provide a full-time officer competent in surveying on site to carry out engineering survey.

(b) The Contractor shall provide and maintain in good working condition on site at all times a levelling instrument and theodolite and such other equipment and personnel as the S.O. may require for the checking and measuring of works.

10.2 Setting Out and Levels

(a) The Contractor shall engage a Registered Surveyor and supply all labour, material and equipment necessary for the setting out of the works in accordance with the Contract and Drawing Specifications, or as required by the S.O.. The setting out shall be carried out by a Registered Surveyor and certified by him.

(b) The lines to be set out on site shall generally include a base line, the proposed drain lines, drainage reserve lines, limits of the working space where specified in the Contract and any other lines as required by the S.O., including any amendments. These lines shall be marked clearly on site by planting pegs or posts with paint markings on the ground, or any other means as approved by the S.O..

(c) The Contractor shall submit a 'setting out' plan duly endorsed by Registered Surveyor, to the S.O. for his written approval, prior to the commencement of work. The 'setting out' plan shall be in the same scale as the Contract site plans, and shall show the alignment of the base lines, proposed drain lines, Drainage Reserve lines and any other lines as set out on site. The plan shall also show other permanent structures and features in the vicinity of the works such as buildings roads, side drains, culverts bridges, fencing, services pipes or cables crossings.

(d) The Contractor shall carry out the works strictly in accordance with the approved setting out plans. Any deviation from the plans shall be forwarded to the S.O. for his acceptance and, if accepted by him, shall be recorded on an amended setting out plan

(e) Any assistance which the S.O. may render to the Contractor in setting out shall in no way relieve the Contractor of the entire responsibility for the correctness of all setting out.

11 Bench Mark

The Contractor shall establish adequate numbers of bench marks and fixed points on the site to the S.O.'s direction and shall ensure that these are not damaged and disturbed. All such bench marks and fixed points shall be based on a Government Bench Mark.

12 Electricity Supply

The Contractor shall make his own arrangements and pay, where necessary, for the supply of electricity required for the constructional purposes.

13 Office for S.O.

(a) The Contractor shall provide on an approved site, a weather and sun proof lock-up office with mortice lock or approved strong hasp, staple and padlock to the door. The size and type of office shall be designed and built to the satisfaction of the S.O.. It shall include proper modern sanitary facilities, washing facilities, electricity, electrical appliances, telephones, furniture and fitments etc., all to the approval of the S.O. and for the exclusive use of the S.O. and his staff.

(b) The following adequate furniture and equipment shall be provided and maintained in good and usable conditions in the site office:- (i) 1 no. 1500mm x 900mm writing table with 2 locked drawers (ii) 1 no. arm chair, circular (iii) 2 nos chairs, straight-back (iv) 1 no. 1500mm x 900mm drawing table with 2 plan drawers and 1 stool (v) 1 no. telephone (vi) 1 no. first aid kit (vii) 1 no. fire extinguisher Other necessary office and drawing equipment such as drawing board, T-square, set-squares, scales, pencils, etc.

(c) The office shall be located on an approved site in close proximity to the work and the Contractor shall move the offices as often as the S.O. may direct to keep pace with the work. The Contractor is deemed to have allowed for this in his pricing.

(d) Allow for maintaining all the offices and facilities for the duration of the contract including paying all charges and keeping in a clean condition.

(e) The Contractor shall arrange for the office to be provided with telephone facilities and shall keep the telephone connected as long as it is required and shall pay all charges for installation, rent and telephone calls made by the S.O. and his staff.

(f) The Contractor shall also provide covered car parking facilities adjacent to the office to the approval of the S.O..

(g) On completion of the Works and only instructed by the S.O., the contractor shall remove the office together with all its facilities from the site and leave the site in a tidy condition.

14 Contractor's Plant

(a) All mechanical plants used by the Contractor in the execution of the Works must be of such type, size and of such method of working as the S.O. shall approve.

(b) The S.O.'s approval to the use of mechanical plants will not be unreasonably withheld, but if in the S.O.'s opinion, circumstances arise which make it desirable that the use of plants should be suspended either temporarily or permanently, the Contractor shall change the method of performing the work affected at his own cost. The Contractor will be deemed to have no cause for claim against the Board on account of having to carry out the work by another method nor will he be deemed to have cause for claim if any other instructions issued by the S.O. results in the mechanical plant having either to stand idle for a period of any duration whatsoever or to be removed.

(c) This clause shall apply also to the plants which, in the opinion of the S.O., are not as quiet in operating as the circumstances seem to the S.O. to warrant.

(d) The Contractor shall use every possible means to prevent noise and annoyance to the residents of the neighbourhood in which the Works and the Contractor's storage yards are situated and all the machinery must be of such design and so arranged to be reasonably free of noise in working.

(e) All equipment and plant being used on the Works shall be equipped with noise control devices complying with all laws and regulations prevailing at the time of use.

(f) The Contractor will not be allowed to make any extra charge for work or expense incurred in complying with the requirements of this clause.

15 Continous Working and Overtime

(a) If, in the opinion of the S.O., it is necessary, by reason of the safety of the works, or for the restoration of interrupted services or for any other reason whatsoever, the Contractor shall, when so ordered carry out the works or any portion thereof continuously by day and by night without extra charge.

(b) The Contractor, if he considers that it may become necessary to cause overtime to be worked on site in order to complete the contract by the date for completion, shall request for written permission and allow for such contingency in his tender price.

(c) It shall be clearly and definitely understood by the Contractor that no claims in respect of any of the above shall be allowed in the settlement of the Final Account.

16 Flow through Drain and Canal

(a) The Contractor shall take every practical precaution to avoid interference with the flow of storm water through the drain, canal, culverts and other side drains etc. Any spoil, rubble, timber, rubbish or other materials which may fall or be brought into the drain, canal culvert and other site drains etc by the storm water shall be removed forthwith by the Contractor.

(b) If the S.O. considers that any temporary structure erected in a drain is obstructing the flow to an extent more than necessary making it liable to cause flooding in the event of a rain storm, he may, one hour after notifying the Contractor or his representative, employ whatever labour and plants to demolish such structures at the expenses of the Contractor. Any expenses so incurred will be deducted from any sum that may be due to the Contractor.

(c) All necessary water tight flumes, cofferdams, chutes and/or other approved methods of controlling the flow of water shall be adequate for this purpose in the opinion of the S.O., and shall be constructed in a rigid, workmanlike manner, sufficient to withstand water pressure at its highest level.

(d) The Contractor shall be responsible and shall indemnify the S.O. against any actions, claims, costs and demands for damages caused by flooding, slips, subsidences or other failures resulting from non-compliance by the Contractor with respect to the above.

17 Pollution Control Measures and Prevention of Mosquito Breeding

The site and working areas shall be maintained at the Contractor's expense in accordance with the current regulations governing pollution control measures and prevention of mosquito breeding.

18 Rate of Excavation and Drain Construction

The Contractor shall endeavour to so arrange his work that the rate of drain construction keeps pace with the rate of excavation. However, the distance over which the Contractor may excavate in advance of the concreting and drain construction will be specified from time to time by the S.O..

19 Safeguarding Properties adjacent to Site

(a) Where work is undertaken near or adjacent to buildings and in the opinion of the S.O., the stability of such buildings is liable to be affected as a result of the work, the S.O shall instruct the Contractor to have such buildings inspected and engage an independent condition surveyor, approved by the S.O., to carry out a precondition survey of such buildings. The precondition survey is to record photographic evidence including description of all existing cracks, defects, etc prior to the commencement of the works. A precondition survey report with two complete sets of photographs shall be submitted to the S.O. within 1 month from the date of the site possession and prior to the commencement of the works. Every attempt shall be made to survey all premises. Every precaution should be taken by the Contractor to survey and safeguard all building or structure that are likely to be affected by the construction work and they should be to the complete satisfaction of the S.O.. The Contractor may be directed by the S.O. to excavate in such lengths of excavation as will permit the least amount to be opened at one time in order to minimize the danger of such open excavation affecting the stability of buildings or their supports. The item on precondition survey in the bills of quantities would not be paid unless the S.O. instructs the contractor to carry out the precondition survey.

(b) The Contractor will be held responsible for damage to public, private or other buildings and properties adjacent to the site of the works which is caused as a direct or indirect result of the Contractor's work. Should the Contractor fail to take the necessary precautions, the S.O. may, after giving the Contractor twenty-four (24) hours notice in writing, instruct another party to supply labour, material, plant, implements and transport to carry out such work. The cost of such work will be charged to the Contractor.

(c) The Contractor must take due care to safeguard all existing services, such as water, sewer or gas mains, electricity or telephone cables, culverts and any other existing services. The Contractor will be required to excavate trial pits in advance of the Works and determine accurately the position of mains, pipes, etc. The Contractor shall notify the S.O. of any mains, pipes or conduits met within trial pits or excavation and shall take steps to support and protect these to the satisfaction of the S.O.. The Contractor will be responsible for any damage done to mains, cables, culverts and other services, inside or outside the excavation as a result of earth movement, faulty timbering, excessive weight of excavated material being deposited too close to open trench, leaving the excavation open for an unduly long period or to any form of settlement following backfilling.

(d) No work done by the S.O. or his workmen nor the fact that the timbering has complied with this Specification or requirements of the S.O. nor the approval of proposed or completed timbering etc by the S.O. shall absolve the Contractor from his responsibilities and he will be required to make good any damage caused as a result of the timbering failing to give proper support to the sides of the excavation.

(e) Furthermore, the Contractor is required to conform with any other safety and fire regulations that may be introduced from time to time.

20 Method of Working

The Contractor is required to carry out the Works in the manner detailed herein, shown on the drawings and normally adopted. He is at liberty to supply with his tender such modification as he proposes for consideration and shall seek for approval from the S.O. before he is allowed to apply new or changed methods of construction. Notwithstanding any Specification, approval of decision given by the S.O. as to the carrying out of the Works, the Contractor will be wholly liable for the safety of the Works, both temporary and permanent and for the completion of the Contract to the satisfaction of the S.O..

21 Cofferdam and Temporary Tidegates

(a) Any proposal for cofferdams or temporary tidegates shall not be implemented without the prior written approval of the S.O..

(b) Any cofferdams proposed within the existing drain shall be designed such that they are easily removable or collapsible to ensure that the cofferdams are not liable to cause flooding during a rainstorm.

(c) The Contractor shall also provide diversion drains with equivalent conveyance capacities to compensate for the loss of flow capacity due to the obstruction of flow by the cofferdams.

(d) The Contractor shall submit details, such as the method of construction, materials used, width, height, length and location of the proposed cofferdams, temporary tidegates and diversion drains to the S.O. for his approval before commencing work on the proposed cofferdams, temporary tidegates and diversion drains.

(e) If a temporary tidegate is used, the Contractor must submit the operation procedure to the S.O. and the tidegate must have the following features:- (i) water level sensors to provide an early warning signal when the water in the drain reaches a critical level, which shall be pre-determined by the S.O.; (ii) an automated paging system with five pre-programmed numbers; and (iii) 24 hours manning by staff employed by the contractor. (f) Testing of the water level sensors, auto-paging system and tidegate is required to be carried out at every three months during the entire construction period.

22 Preservation of Trees, Vegetations and Top soil

All existing trees, vegetation and top soil encountered on site are not to be damaged or removed unless on the expressed instruction of the S.O.. Where existing trees, vegetation or topsoil is to be maintained, the Contractor shall take all necessary precautions to maintain or reinstate all to the satisfaction of the S.O. till the end of the maintenance period.

23 Concreting Programme

(a) For concrete and reinforced concrete structures, a fully detailed and explained programme of concreting must be submitted and approved by the S.O. before work may proceed.

(b) The programme shall indicate and/or take cognisance of the method of timbering, levels of struts and frames, arrangement of reinforcement, construction joints and the proposed plant and methods of concreting to be used.

24 Protection of Work

The Contractor shall, at his own expense, protect all work liable to damage either by the weather or by the method adopted for the execution of the works requiring the use of cement. The Contractor's attention is drawn to the risk of damage to structures due to temperature changes and he will be required to protect all materials subject to damage from direct rays of the sun.

25 Demolition and Making Good

(a) The Contractor shall take care when demolishing or cutting away existing work that no adjacent work is unnecessarily damaged in any way. Any work so damaged shall be made good entirely at the expense of the Contractor.

(b) Old materials shall not be re-used in the new work, except where so specified or as directed by the S.O..

(c) Exposed raw faces of existing concrete or brickwork which will not have new work built on them shall be made good with cement, rendering or new brickwork and finished to a neat, straight, vertical or plane surface in harmony with the adjoining surface.

26 Structural Test

(a) The S.O. may instruct the Contractor to make a loading test on the Works or any part thereof if in the S.O.'s opinion such a test is necessary.

(b) If the test so instructed is to be made because of cube test failure, or the finished work in the opinion of the S.O. is structurally defective and therefore unacceptable unless proven otherwise, then the test shall be made at the Contractor's expense irrespective of the test result.

(c) For all structural works, the load tests shall be done generally in accordance with B.S.8110.

(d) If the result of any of the tests is not satisfactory, at the S.O.'s instruction, that part of the Works shall be rejected and reconstructed to comply with this Specification, or other approved measures be taken to make the works secure, all at the Contractor's expense. No extension of time shall be entertained in this connection.

27 Prevention of Flotation

(a) The Contractor is warned that the structures may not be heavy enough to resist the possible uplift due to water pressure until the structure, soil cover and backfilling have been completed. The Contractor shall make adequate arrangements to keep the excavation dry until the structures and filling are complete or shall adopt other approved means of ensuring the stability of the temporary or permanent works. His proposed method must be submitted to the S.O. for approval before work is commenced and he shall provide for adequate standby plant and attendance throughout 24 hours each day.

(b) For pipelines laid in wet, waterlogged or ground subject to flooding, all necessary precautions must be taken to prevent the flotation or movement of pipelines whether laying, laid or under test.

28 Inspection and Replacement of Defective Work

(a) At any time during or after the execution of the Works, the Contractor shall, at the request of the S.O. and within such time as the S.O. shall name, open for inspection any work covered up and should the Contractor refuse or neglect to comply with such request, the S.O. shall employ other workmen to open up the same.

(b) If the said work has been covered up in contravention of the S.O.'s instructions, or if on being opened up it be found not in accordance with the Drawings, Specifications and Bills of Quantities or the instructions of the S.O., the expenses of such opening and covering it up again, whether done by the Contractor or such other workmen, will be borne by and is recoverable from the Contractor.

(c) If the work has not been covered up in contravention of such instructions or is found to be in accordance with the said Drawings, Specifications and Bills of Quantities or instructions, then the expenses aforesaid will be borne by the Board and be added to the Contract Sum.

(d) Whenever in the opinion of the S.O. the work done is inadequate or of poor workmanship or inferior materials or in anyway sub-standard, such works will be demolished, cut out or removed from the Works immediately and replaced with new materials of the required standard and quality.

29 Reinstatement of Surface

(a) The Contractor's work shall include the reinstatement of the foundation and surfaces of any roads, kerbs, cycle tracks footways and grass areas disturbed by the excavation work both within and outside the actual trench area. The Contractor will be paid for the reinstatement of trenches at the rates given in the Bill of Quantities but no payment will be made for any surfaces disturbed outside the excavation, the reinstatement of all such surfaces being entirely the responsibility of the Contractor.

(b) The Contractor shall allow for machine paving in all reinstatement of road surfaces. If damage caused by the Contractor's work is extensive, he shall note that reinstatement in the form of milling and patching of premix on road surfaces may be necessary to satisfy LTA on their requirement of the road reinstatement works.

(c) The Contractor shall also allow for the complete reinstatement of all surfaces damaged in side-tables, and all other private or Government Lands to the approval of the S.O. and generally to a condition at least equal to the original ground surface before the Works commence. The Contractor shall note that for tiled surfaces, matching tiles need to be provided by him for the reinstatement works. Where exact matching tiles are unavailable, the Contractor shall note that he may be required to retile areas beyond his immediate work site to the full satisfaction of the S.O. and the other relevant authorities.

30 Reinstatement of Foundation and Road surface

(a) The Contractor will be required to maintain in a clean, safe and tidy state the temporary reinstatement of trench and other damaged surfaces in roads as specified previously until such time as the permanent reinstatement is carried out.

(b) Permanent reinstatement must only be carried out on receipt of an instruction from the S.O. and the reinstatement will then commence within 7 days and completed as soon as possible. The S.O. may instruct the Contractor to reinstate the roads in sections as the work proceeds.

(c) The reinstatement must comply with all the requirements of the Traffic and Road Management, LTA. Any work not conforming in standard or extent to the requirements of the S.O. or Senior Manager of Traffic and Road Management, LTA must be immediately removed and replaced or extended.

(d) Should the Contractor fail to carry out all the required reinstatement works within a reasonable time of him being instructed to do so, the S.O. may arrange for the proper execution of the work at the expense of the Contractor.

(e) On completion of the reinstatement, the Contractor will be required to maintain all the road surfaces etc. affected for the full period of the Contract and Defects Liability Period. All faults, settlements etc. developing within this period must be made good immediately upon receipt of an instruction from the S.O..

31 Nominated Sub-Contractor and Other supplier

(a) Where certain works of supply and erection or fixing are concerned, Nominated Sub-Contractors may be employed. In this event a Prime Cost Sum will form part of the Contract and the Contractor will be instructed to place orders or enter into Sub-Contracts with the Nominated Sub-Contractor.

(b) The Contractor shall give Sub-Contractors and others working on the Site all information reasonably necessary to enable them to set out properly and execute their work. The Contractor shall provide to Nominated Sub-Contractors all relevant copies of Specifications and Conditions of Contract to enable them to comply with all the requirements under the main Contract so far as it relate to sub-contract works.

(c) The Contractor shall provide general attendance upon all Sub-Contractors, Specialists and other executing related work. The Contractor shall provide such facilities as the S.O. may consider reasonable and afford them use of erected scaffolding which they may require for the purpose of carrying out their work, supply them with labour and tackle for unloading, getting in, hoisting and distributing their materials, allow them use of storage for their materials, allow them use of storage for their materials and space for working so that their works may proceed regularly with the general progress of the Works.

Part II - Material

32 Standard of Material

(a) As far as is practicable and unless otherwise stated, all materials used in the Works shall comply with the current Singapore Standard Specification or equivalent quality standards. Whenever reference is made to National Standards and Trade Names, other approved standards which ensure an equal or higher quality of product or workmanship than the specified will also be accepted.

(b) Wherever any material required for the Works is manufactured in the Republic of Singapore, the Board will give preference to the use of that material in lieu of an equivalent imported material provided that, in the opinion of the S.O., the material is considered satisfactory with regard to quality, etc., and the price is equal or lower than the equivalent imported materials. In any case of doubt, the Contractor should consult the Drainage Department.

(c) Where an approved Standard is quoted in this document, the latest standard will apply.

(d) In all cases where materials are specified to comply with Singapore Standards, the Contractor shall, if required, obtain from the manufacturer and supply to the S.O.'s representative, the appropriate certificates of compliance with the Standards. Notwithstanding the above, test shall be carried out as and when directed by the S.O. in accordance with the relevant Standards.

(e) Where materials are specified to Singapore Standard Specification or equivalent quality standards and the appropriate certificates of compliance are not available, the Contractor shall arrange for the testing of samples. Full tests will be carried out in accordance with the Specification to demonstrate complete compliance. Tests may be carried out by the accredited laboratory on behalf of the Contractor but the cost of samples, transport testing and every other expense shall be borne by the Contractor.

33 Sample of Material

(a) Samples of aggregates, bricks, tiles and all materials required by the S.O. must be submitted for approval on site before any bulk orders are placed.

(b) Following approval of samples, bulk deliveries may take place and these must at all times be equal or superior in quality than the approved samples. Any materials delivered during the progress of the Works and found to be inferior to the approved samples or unsatisfactory in any other respect must be immediately and completely removed from the site or sites. The Contractor may also be required to produce proof of the destination of condemned materials removed from the sites.

34 Timber

(a) All timber used for timbering of excavation or shoring must be of adequate section and quality. Timber used in trenches to support the face of the excavations must be at least Medium Hardwood as in accordance with the Malaysian Grading Rules for Malaysian Timbers.

(b) The timber used in shuttering must be of sound, well-seasoned timber and free from shakes, twists or other defects. Plywood lining for shuttering must be of an approved thickness and type of timber, resin bonded and water repellent.

(c) Timber used in carpentry and joinery must be sound, thoroughly seasoned and free from defects. The timber shall have a straight uniform grain and be of an approved species for each purpose.

35 Timber Preservative

All timber hardboard, etc. to be permanently incorporated into the Works must be pressure impregnated with an approved preservative. The preservative must be of a type resistant to all forms of rot, termite and insect attack.

36 Bakau Pile

(a) Bakau piles shall be good, sound, straight piles with fresh uninjured bark and of reasonably uniform size throughout. They shall not be less than 75mm in diameter at the larger end and 65mm at its thinner end. Such measurements shall not be over knobs and protuberances. The permissible deviation of the axis of the pile from the straight line joining the centres of the two ends shall not be more than 15mm.

(b) All bakau piles shall be inspected and approved by the S.O. before being used. Bakau piles that have been rejected shall be removed from site immediately. The piling shall be carried out by operators thoroughly experienced in their trade and shall be carried out in accordance with the instructions of the S.O..

(c) Piles shall be driven vertically in a straight line, particularly squared from the face of the work and free from damage. The monkey used shall be 200 kg (minimum) in weight. The monkey shall drop from a height of 1m minimum but not exceeding 1.5m. The actual height of the drops shall be as directed by the S.O..

(d) Incorrectly or badly driven piles and piles damaged during driving shall be extracted and replaced or else duplicated all at the Contractor's own expense.

(e) For bakau piles longer that 5m but not exceeding 10m length, only one mild steel splice joint shall be allowed to extend the piles to the required length. No splicing shall be allowed for bakau piles not exceeding 5m in length. Splicing shall be by means of a mild steel collar of 110mm internal diameter and 400mm in length. The collar shall be fabricated from a single galvanised Steel Sheet of SWG 12 (2.64mm) thickness with 15mm diameter mild steel bar strut at the centre of the collar and all shall be well coated with bituminous paint and approved by S.O. before being put to use.

37 Cement

Cement must be ordinary Portland cement of approved manufacture and shall comply with S.S.26 - Specification for Portland Cement (ordinary and rapid-hardening). It must be of an approved brand with preference being given for cement of local manufacture. Where high alumina cement is specified, it shall comply with B.S. 915. Compression tests instead of tensile tests shall be made on cement-sand cubes in order to determine the strength of cement.

38 Concreting Aggregate

(a) Generally (i) Materials used as aggregates must be obtained from a source known to produce aggregates satisfactory for concrete and must be chemically inert, strong, hard, durable, of limited porosity, and free from adhering coats of clay lumps, coal, coal residues, organic or other impurities that may impair the strength or durability of the concrete. Aggregates must be tested in accordance with the requirements of S.S.31 and the results of such tests must be as hereinafter specified, the percentage being by weight unless the context indicates otherwise. (ii) In the design of concrete mixes, the grading of the combined aggregates shall lay within one of the Zones A, B or C of Road Note 4 issued by the Road Research Laboratory, Department of Scientific & Industrial Research, U.K.. (iii) The S.O. may order the grading of the aggregates to be varied from that specified above and the Contractor will not be entitled to any extra payment for such variation.

(b) Fine Aggregate
(i) Fine aggregate must be clean, natural sand or sand derived by crushing gravel or stone and must be free from coagulated lumps. Sand derived from stone unsuitable for coarse aggregate must not be used as fine aggregate.
(ii) The sodium hydroxide test for organic impurities shall show a colour not deeper than that of the standard solution. The amount of fine particles, as ascertained by the laboratory sedimentation method, shall not exceed 10% for crushed stone sand nor 4% for natural sand. The field sedimentation test shall yield a percentage clay-plus-fine-silt not exceeding 10% for natural sand. These tests are to be conducted in accordance with S.S.73.
(iii) If the fine aggregate does not conform to the prescribed standards, the S.O. may reject it or order that it be washed, screened and graded until it meets with his approval.
(iv) The grading of fine aggregate for concrete work shall comply with the requirements of S.S.31.
(v) The fine aggregate must be within the limits of grading zone 2 for Grade 30 and Grade 25 concrete and within the limits of grading zones 1 & 3 for Grade 20 and Grade 15 concrete. The grading zones are those specified in Table 2 of S.S.31. The use of all-in aggregate will not be permitted.
(vi) The Contractor is required to provide an approved type of instrument/equipment for measuring, the moisture content in the fine aggregate (sand) for the concrete. Check on the moisture content of sand should be made at least once a day before concreting. The amount of water to be added to the concrete mix should be adjusted accordingly.

(c) Coarse Aggregate
(i) Coarse aggregate must be crushed or uncrushed gravel or crushed stone and must be free from decomposed stone, clay, earth or other deleterious substances. The pieces must be angular, or except for concrete surfaces subject to abrasion rounded in shape and shall have granular or crystalline or smooth (but not glassy) non-powdery surfaces. Friable, flaky and laminated pieces, mica and shale can only be present in such quantities as not to affect adversely the strength and durability of the concrete.
(ii) The maximum size of coarse aggregate for Grades 30, 25, 20, and 15 concrete shall be 20mm. The grading of coarse aggregate for concrete work shall comply with the requirements of S.S.31.

39 Water

(a) Water for making concrete and cement mortar must be clean, fresh and free from organic or inorganic matter in solution or suspension in such amounts that may impair the strength or durability of the concrete. Water must be obtained from a public supply where possible and can be taken from any other source only after comprehensive testing and analysis of samples and the written approval of the S.O.. No sea-water or water from excavation can be used.

(b) Only water of approved quality can be used for washing out shuttering, curing concrete, testing water retaining structures and similar purposes.

40 Reinformation

40.1 General

(a) The reinforcement shall be complying with S.S.2, S.S.18 or steel fabric complying with S.S.32.

(b) Where the letter T is used in the structural detailing, it shall mean that such reinforcement shall be high-yield bars having a minimum characteristic strength of 460N/mm2 unless otherwise stated.

(c) The letter R, where used shall indicate that such reinforcement shall be mild steel bars with a minimum characteristic strength of 250N/mm2.

(d) Reinforcement bar not designated by any letter shall be high yield having a minimum characteristic strength of 460N/mm2.

(e) Neither the nominal size nor the letter of a bar shall be less than the size or length shown on the drawings.

41 Structural Steel

Structural steel members shall comply with the requirements of B.S.4360 and be of uniform sizes and standard cross section.

42 Testing of Steel

(a) The Contractor shall arrange for the manufacturer to supply direct to the S.O. a certificate stating the process of manufacture and a test sheet signed by the manufacturer giving the results of each of the mechanical tests applicable to and the description of the materials purchased and, if and when the required, of the chemical analysis also and all tests specified in the relevant Standards.

(b) The reinforcement shall be tested based on the frequency as shown below. Selection of test pieces shall be made by the S.O.. The Contractor shall bear all costs involved in making these tests.

Type of Test Frequency of Test
Chemical Test One sample for every 500Ton or rebars or part thereof
Tensile Test One sample for every 25Ton of rebars or part thereof
Bend/Re-bend Test One sample for every 50 Ton of rebars or part thereof

43 Dowel Bar

Mild steel dowel bars shall consist of steel complying with the requirements of B.S.4360. They shall be straight 20mm diameter, 450mm long and free from burned edges or other irregularities. The bars are to be included in the works where indicated on the drawings or directed by the S.O.. In general, half the bar shall be connected in on one side of a break joint and the other half painted with bitumen before concreting in on the second side of the break joint.

44 Waterproof Paper

Waterproof building paper shall comply with B.S.1521. For roadworks, it shall be Class "B".

45 Expansion Jointing Material

Expansion jointing material shall be supplied in the required thickness and widths. No multi-layer joints will be permitted. The material shall comprise an approved cellular material with a high degree of recovery after crushing and the material shall be thoroughly impregnated with a suitable preservative.

46 Joint Sealing Compound

Joints shall be sealed with a rubber-bituminous compound which shall be of an approved type compatible in all respects with the jointing material. Horizontal joint seals may be made with a hot run type of sealer while vertical joints shall be made with a caulked, or adhesion type sealing strip. Full details of the materials and the manufacturers recommendations for application shall be submitted to the S.O. for approval.

47 Water Bar

(a) Water bars shall be of an approved type and shall be obtained from an approved manufacturer. They shall be of a natural or synthetic rubber, extruded P.V.C. plastic or copper strip. The copper strip shall comply with B.S. 1878, shall be of adequate gauge and shall not be perforated.

(b) The rubber or P.V.C. strips shall be of adequate dimensions generally not less than 150mm wide x 6mm thick with keys at each end and a central shear bulb.

48 Requirements on Precast Concrete Units

(a) Lifting The Contractor is required to submit to the S.O. for approval prior to the construction, his proposal for handling and lifting these precast units. His proposal shall include detailed drawings and calculations certified by a Professional Engineer to be engaged by him. The lifting arrangement shall be so designed so that no undue stresses will be induced on the precast units. If the lifting arrangements are so designed that additional reinforcements are required to be provided in the precast units shown in the Contract Drawings, the Contractor shall provide the additional reinforcements required to the approval of the S.O. and he will not be allowed to claim for the additional reinforcements provided. The Contractor shall take note of the above and shall allow in his rates to comply with the requirements.

(b) Joints The Contractor shall ensure that all faces of the precast units which adjoin during construction shall be of such form and finish that the interior surface of the precast units shall be such as will facilitate the assembly of the precast units. Unless otherwise stated, the joint between adjacent precast sections may be a rebated joint.

(c) Tolerances The Contractor shall ensure that the actual internal dimensions of a precast section shall not differ from the designated dimension by more than 5mm, the actual thickness by more than plus 5mm or minus 3mm and the actual length by more than 6mm.

(d) Workmanship and Finish The Contractor shall ensure that the concrete shall be dense and hard and substantially free from chipped edges, laitance and surface roughness, the precast sections shall be free from fractures and cracks wider than 0.15mm and residual test cracks wider than 0.08mm, and from other defects arising from faulty material or faulty methods of manufacture. Dents not exceeding 3mm deep and bulges not exceeding 3mm high shall be permitted provided that they do not extend over the surface for a distance greater than twice the thickness of concrete where they occur.

(e) Marking The date of manufacture of the precast units shall be clearly stencilled on the interior of each unit near the top.

(f) Load Test Except in cases where the design is done by the Board and the precasting is done under the supervision of the S.O. or where there are no Standards & Specifications available, from every twenty units of the precast sections of each type and size manufactured, the S.O. may select one unit for load test. The load test will be carried out as directed by the S.O. and in accordance with the requirements as spelt in the Contract Specifications.

(g) Casting Yard The Contractor shall also note that he is required to find his own casting yard at his own cost. The Contractor shall then notify the S.O. of the location of his casting yard. The S.O. and his representatives shall have access to the casting yard at all reasonable hours. The Contractor shall make arrangement for the testing of the concrete cubes for the precast units in accordance with the procedure as stipulated in the Standard Specification for Drainage Works. The cost of making, curing, transporting and testing of all the cubes shall be borne by the Contractor.

(h) Defective Units Any unit which is found to be defective or damaged during handling shall be rejected. All rejected units must be removed from the site. The rejection of any precast unit shall be made for the precast units which are rejected

(i) Laying of Units The Contractor shall ensure that the precast units are laid to the correct line and level. The Contractor shall be required to take out and adjust the precast units at his own cost if there is any movement or settlement of the units during and after construction. The Contractor is to allow in his rates for cement grouting or equivalent approved filling of the gaps between the adjacent precast units to the full satisfaction of the S.O..

(j) Method of Construction The Contractor shall be required to submit a detailed description of the method of construction of the precast units including the type of machinery to be used for the approval of the S.O. before the commencement of work.

(k) Samples The Contractor will be required to supply samples of all precast concrete units for the approval of the S.O.. Only when approval has been given may the supply of the units take place and any units supplied which are inferior to the approved sample will be rejected.

49 Prestressed Concrete Slab

The prestressed concrete slabs required as cover slabs to access chambers etc. shall be precast concrete units. The slabs shall be designed to carry a superimposed live load of 510kN/m2 where installation is outside the carriageways (medium) and Ministry of Transport (U.K.) loading for carriageway design (heavy). Calculations and design for each type of slab shall be submitted and approved by the S.O. before casting commences. Slabs shall be subjected to test before delivery to site, one slab being subjected to test for each batch or type of slabs of 25 or less made. The test units selected by the S.O. shall be subjected to a point load bending test, the load being sufficient to induce a bending moment not less than one and a half times the design moment. One slab of each size made shall be subjected to a test to failure to ascertain the ultimate bending moments.

50 Concrete Pipe(Ordinary Portland Cement) without Lining

(a) Concrete pipes shall be to the approval of the S.O. obtained from an approved manufacturer and made from reinforced Ordinary Portland Cement Concrete. They shall in general comply with S.S.183 and shall be tested as described therein. Drawings and details of the proposed reinforcement shall be submitted for the S.O.'s approval.

(b) In particular, the hydraulic proof test shall be to S.S.183 and shall be applied on 1 in every 50 or part of 50 pipes of the same nominal internal diameter for all sizes and classes of pipes.

(c) Standard pipes, Class L, M and H pipes shall be capable of being jointed one to the other in the normal manner. No pipes shall be dispatched from the place of manufacture until the approval of the S.O. has been given following whatever tests or inspection the S.O. may have called for. Notwithstanding the approval of the S.O. to pipes at the place of manufacture, the Contractor will still be held responsible for any faults found on the pipes on site.

(e) In order to permit the use of the same moulds for different classes of pipe specified, internal diameters greater than that specified will be permitted. The internal diameter of the finished pipes shall not be more than 25mm less than the diameter stated in the B.Q..

51 Sand

The sand for cement mortar etc. shall be as described for fine aggregate except that it shall be fine sand complying with S.S.31.

52 Granular Material

Granular material for pipe bedding etc., shall be of approved sand, laterite or other suitable material, free of all clay lumps and stones above a 25mm gauge.

53 Quarry Rid

Local stone rejects shall be not less than 75mm or more than 100mm gauge and shall be of a type approved by the S.O..

54 Stone for Pitching

Stone for pitching shall be of approved granite. No block shall exceed 0.03m3 in volume and its greatest dimension shall not exceed 450mm.

55 Hardcore

Hardcore shall consist of broken stone, brick, or other approved hard material. It shall be free from clay, dust and other deleterious matter and shall not contain pieces exceeding 150mm or less than 60mm gauge.

56 Brick

(a) Common bricks shall be of a standard size, of even shape, hard, well burnt, and machine made pressed bricks with true arrises.

(b) Facing bricks shall be of a standard size, uniform in dimension, shape and colour and shall be hard, well burnt, pressed bricks. The delivered bricks shall be further selected by hand picking on site to reject misshapen, underburnt or overburnt bricks. No payment will be made for rejected bricks although suitable rejects may be used as 'commons'.

(c) Engineering bricks shall be obtained from approved manufacturers. They shall be hand selected so that they will in general conform to S.S.103 but the minimum allowable average compressive strength shall not be less than 31 N/mm2. They shall be the best of their respective kinds, sound, hard, square made, well burnt throughout, regular in size and shape, with good faces and clean arrises and free from lime, chalk, pebbles, shell or other extraneous matter and other defects.

(d) Before any bricks are ordered, samples of each kind of brick shall be submitted to the S.O.'s representative for approval.

(e) Bricks shall be carefully handled from lorries and stacked by hand and all bricks broken, chipped, cracked or with broken arrises shall be removed from the site without delay.

57 Grating & Chequer Plates for Closed Drain/Culvert

(a) Standard gratings, chequer plates and frames shall comply with the Standard Drawings issued by the Drainage Department in all dimensional particulars.

(b) For gratings, chequer plates and frames not to standard dimensions and type, large scale sectional drawings must be submitted for approval before orders are placed.

(c) All gratings and chequer plates provided over closed drains/culverts shall be hinged to fixed frames securely embedded into the drain structures. The spacing of the hinged gratings shall be in accordance with the requirements of the relevant authorities. Mild steel heavy duty gratings shall be used for closed drains subjected to vehicular loadings, whereas light duty gratings shall only be used for pedestrian loadings. The gratings, frames and chequer plates shall be galvanised.

58 Aluminium Rungs

(a) Aluminium rungs shall be at 300mm centres and of 380mm width. The rungs shall be provided if depth of drains equal to or exceeding 1.2m and width of the drains equal to or less than 2m. For closed drains, the rungs shall be provided at every 60m apart and for open drains, the rungs shall be provided at every maintenance openings/gratings according to the Code of Practice on Surface Water Drainage.

(b) The rungs shall be made of aluminium alloy 6082 T6 and of approved design complying with B.S.1474.

59 Handrailing

(a) Unless otherwise specified, handrailing and standards may be made from continuous weld hot dipped galvanised mild steel tube medium quality 30mm internal diameter, complying with S.S.17. Fittings for handrail standards shall comply with B.S. 1740.

(b) Alternatively, handrailing and standards shall be of extruded aluminium tube, 30mm outside diameter with robust cast aluminium standards to S.O.'s approval.

(c) The aluminium alloy shall be H30. The extruded aluminium members shall be fabricated from aluminium alloy HT30TF, HE30TF or HF30TF complying with B.S. 1471, B.S. 1472 or B.S. 1474 or equivalent.

60 Paint

(a) All paints including primers and undercoats shall be obtained ready mixed for use from approved manufacturers. The Contractor shall only be allowed to use paint which is delivered to the site in sealed cans or drums bearing the name of the manufacturer and properly labelled as to quality.

(b) All materials for multiple coats, e.g. priming, undercoat and finishing coat shall be obtained from the same manufacturer and shall be those recommended by the manufacturer as suitable for using together and for the surface concerned. All tints and shades (including undercoats) shall be selected and approved by the S.O..

(c) Priming paint for structural steel and cast iron shall comply with S.S.6: Types B or C. Priming paint for zinc or aluminium surfaces shall be approved zinc chromate priming paint. Oil-based undercoat and finishing paints shall be similar to S.S.34 and S.S.7 respectively, but the pigments shall not include white lead.

61 Erosion Control Blankets

(a) The work shall consist of furnishing, placing and maintaining the erosion control blanket (ECB).

(b) The blanket shall be a machine-produced mat of consistent thickness with coconut fibre or palm oil fibre, or other approved fibres with equivalent performance properties, stitched or otherwise mechanically bonded evenly over the entire area of the mat. The blanket shall be covered on both sides with photodegradable polypropylene netting and sewn together with polyester thread.

(c) The blanket shall have the following properties:

Coconut fibres:

Property Requirements
Weight of netting Not less than 270 g/m2 + 10%
Mesh size of netting Not more than 16mm x 16mm
Functional longevity Not less than 3 months

Palm oil fibres:

Property Requirements
Weight of netting Not less than 300 g/m2
Mesh size of netting Not more than 19.2mm x 36.3mm top Not more than 9.3mm x 8.5mm bottom
Functional longevity Not less than 3 months

Other materials subjected to approval:

Property Requirements
Weight of netting Not less than 270 g/m2
Mesh size of netting Not more than 16mm x 16mm
Functional longevity Not less than 3 months


d) The Contractor shall submit certified test data from the manufacturer covering each shipment of the material.

(e) Fasteners shall be used to anchor the blanket to the prepared ground/soil. The appropriate fasteners shall be used in accordance with the manufacturer's design and suitable for the ground conditions. Except grounds that will be protected for at least 12 months, metal or non-degradable fasteners are not permitted.

(f) The functional longevity of the blanket to be chosen depends on the dormant period of the bare ground. The longevity of the blanket shall be chosen such that erosion would be effectively under control at the bare ground covered with ECB throughout the dormant period of the bare ground. The Contractor shall ensure that no bare ground shall be left unprotected from erosion for a month or longer.

(g) The Contractor is deemed to have allowed in the contract for complying with the above requirements.

Part III - Workmanship


62 Workmanship Generally

(a) The workmanship shall be of the quality specified. Where the quality of workmanship is not specified in this Specification or in the relevant S.S. or B.S. or elsewhere, work of first class workmanship shall be carried out. All persons employed on the Works or elsewhere in connection with the Works shall be competent and skilled in their respective occupations.

(b) The opinion of the S.O. regarding the standard of workmanship will be final and any work condemned as of inferior standard shall be cut out, removed and replaced to the full extent as directed by the S.O..

63 Excavation Generally

(a) The Contractor shall be deemed to have visited and examined the site carefully and to have ascertained the nature thereof and the kinds of materials to be excavated, and provision must be made in the prices to cover for the types of materials to be excavated.

Survey and Setting out before Excavation Work

(b) Prior to commencement of excavation, the Contractor shall set out the lines and structures for the inspection and the approval of the S.O.. Original ground levels shall also be taken and submitted to the S.O. for record.

(c) All excavations shall be carried out to the required lengths, breadths, depths, inclinations and curvatures as may be necessary for the construction of the Works or as shown in the drawings, in whatever material that may be found and his prices for excavation must include for any type of earth likely to be encountered i.e. soft earth, sand, soft clay, hard clay, tree roots etc., and the surplus soil shall be disposed off as specified hereinafter and as directed by the S.O..

(d) Excavations shall be performed in such a manner and by such methods as are required to maintain safe and stable slopes in the materials encountered, to support adjacent structures, roadways and pipes and to ensure the safety of workmen. No excavation, in areas requiring groundwater control unless sheeted and braced, shall be carried out with a slope steeper than 2 horizontal to 1 vertical.

(e) All excavations are to be carried out according to Part XII, Excavation Work of the Factories Regulations 1985 and all applicable safety regulations under the law of the Republic of Singapore.

(f) The Contractor shall only carry out trench excavation work provided the rate of construction keeps pace with the rate of excavation.

(g) Reuse of excavated material such as natural stone, artificial stone, brick, top soil etc.:

(i) When excavating carriageways, natural stone, artificial stone, brick or tar-paved footpaths or gravelled verges, the Contractor shall first remove all metals, slabs or bricks forming the existing paving to slightly more than the width of excavation and keep separate from the general excavated material for re-use in reinstatement. Breaking through road foundations and surfaces shall be allowed for in the rates for reinstatement together with the cost of temporary reinstatement to the satisfaction of the S.O..
(ii) Pipe trenches shall be cut to a sufficient width to receive and allow the pipes to be easily and properly jointed, but subject to the foregoing shall be kept to the minimum practicable width. The trench width may also be reduced at or about the pipe soffit level in order to reduce the formation level
(iii) Any topsoil shall be excavated separately from the subsoil and shall be kept separate and be used to cover trenches, embankments, slopes, tips, verges, etc. The surfaces so covered shall be neatly trimmed to form smooth uniform slopes or level surfaces as when directed by the S.O..

(h) Stockpile of Excavation Material

(i) All surplus excavated materials shall be carted away to the Contractor's own disposal ground immediately. The surplus excavated material shall not be stockpiled on site. No excavated material shall be allowed to be stockpiled adjacent to the excavations, and the Contractor shall, in general, carry out the whole of the excavation work in the following manner.
(ii) Upon the commencement of excavation work and at such other times as the S.O. may require, the Contractor shall cart the excavated material to a tip to be provided by the Contractor. When in the opinion of the S.O., sufficient excavated material has been carted to the aforesaid tip, the material subsequently excavated shall be carted to working sections on a completed portion of the work and used as backfilling on those sections when necessary on completion of the whole of the work, or at such other times as the S.O. may require, the excavated material previously taken to the tip provided by the Contractor, shall be carted back to the site for backfilling. If the tip provided by the Contractor is within the site, the tip area must be properly contained and covered to prevent earth from washing into the drains or canals.

(i) Measurement Of Excavation Work

(i) The quantities of excavation will be measured as the product of the net plan area of the structure and the vertical height of the agreed ground level above the formation levels of the structure or invert level in the case of a pipeline and the Contractor will be paid in accordance with the quantities thus ascertained. No payment will be allowed for any additional excavation which the Contractor may have to carry out for working space, timbering, shuttering, etc.
(ii) Where, in the opinion of the S.O., it is necessary for any reason to form, extend and/or deepen foundations under or around any parts of the Works and additional excavation so ordered by the S.O. will be paid for at the rates priced in the Bill of Quantities.

64 Trial Holes

(a) Trial holes of such sizes and depths and in such position as may be necessary or directed by the S.O. shall be dug and immediately made good and surfaces reinstated to the original condition as may be ordered by and to the satisfaction of the S.O..

(b) Sufficient trial holes must be dug to accurately locate and determine the positions of services and obstructions in advance of the work. Trial holes may also be necessary to investigate or prove soil conditions in advance of the main excavation.

(c) In all cases, the trial holes are to be excavated, refilled and reinstated in accordance with the Specification for excavation, refilling and reinstatement.

65 Trial Boring

(a) Where trial borings or tests have been made by the Department, the results may be made available to the Contractor. The results or any other information on strata is given in good faith but the Board accepts no responsibility for the accuracy or reliability of such information. In all cases, the Contractor will be deemed to have satisfied himself as to the type of strata and ground conditions to be encountered during the Works.

(b) Additional trials borings required by the Contractor to further investigate the soil conditions shall be carried out by the Contractor at his own expense.

66 Excavation in Rock

66.1 General

(a) Any rock met with in excavation to the required depths shall be removed by wedging, blasting or otherwise as the S. O. may direct. For the purposes of this Contract, rock shall be deemed to be hard natural material which cannot be excavated without the use of wedges, chisels, pneumatic drills or explosives. Unlaminated rock shall be hard sandstone or granite without bedding or cleavage planes. Laminated rock shall be hard shale or hard laterite in distinct layers and shall not include hard clay which shall be excavated at the normal rates for excavation.

(b) The S.O.'s decision as to whether or not the material of the excavations is to be classified as rock shall be final and the Contractor will be paid extra over for excavation in rock as defined above at the rates quoted in the Bill of Quantities.

(c) The quantities of rock billed are PROVISIONAL but the Contractor's price for rock excavation will apply to whatever quantities are finally measured, at whatever depth the rock is encountered, and no claim will be considered which is based on a variation of quantities.

(d) In excavation for structures, the volume of rock paid for shall be the product of the actual area of rock, within the limits of the net plan area of the foundations, and the average thickness of rock excavated.

(e) In trenches, the volume of rock paid for shall be the product of the width of the relevant Type Section and the average thickness of rock excavated between the points concerned and the length thereof and as defined below.

(f) The volume of rock on which payment is claimed shall be measured and agreed upon weekly. No extra for rock shall be payable in any excavation in which the rock has been hidden or covered up prior to the volume of rock excavated being measured and agreed upon by the S.O.'s representative and the Contractor or in respect of any volume which has not been agreed upon within one week of the time the excavation was made.

66.2 Blasting

(a) Blasting shall not be allowed without written permission from the S.O.. If explosives are to be used, the Contractor shall obtain all necessary licenses from the appropriate authorities and shall conform to all Government regulations relating to transport, storage, handling and use of explosives and shall also conform to the rules set out by the Officer-in-charge of Arms and Explosives.

(b) S.O. must be fully informed by the Contractor as to the steps and precautionary measures taken to safeguard the surrounding properties. The Contractor shall be liable for any accident, damage or injury to any person or property resulting from the use of explosives. When blasting is proposed to be carried out, the Contractor shall determine the danger zone likely to be created and ensure that no damage is caused to person or property on or off site. Prior to commencing blasting operations, a written report supported by photographs listing any existing defects in structure shall be submitted to the S.O..

(c) When blasting operations are being carried out, any road affected shall be closed to traffic and appropriate signs shall be erected in accordance with the latest 'Code of Practice' by LTA.

67 Excessive Excavation

(a) Where excavation has been carried out on plan in excess of the limits of permanent work for which it is intended, the S.O., may require the Contractor to fill the void so formed with compacted materials of a similar nature to the adjacent work. Where excavation has been carried out to a depth greater than that required, the void so formed shall be filled with mass concrete as directed by S.O.. In both cases this filling shall be done at the expense of the Contractor.

(b) After excavating the sites on which the various parts of the works are to be constructed, if it is found that due to no fault of the Contractor any part of the formation is unsuitable to provide a satisfactory foundation, such portions shall be further excavated to such depths as the S.O. may direct and refilled to original formation level with mass concrete or hardcore or quarry waste as may be directed. Payment will be made for such additional excavation and filling at appropriate rates.

68 Preventing Damage Due Subsidence

When any excavation is carried out near, or under any existing work including buildings, services, mains, cables, and surfaces such as roads, etc. liable to be affected by subsidence, the Contractor shall prevent damage by subsidence, whether such existing work is shown on the drawings or not.

69 Timbering of Excavation

(a) The term "timbering" shall cover all necessary methods of support including the use of timber, concrete, steel sheet piling, steel sheeting or such materials as may be approved by the S.O. If timber is used, it shall be of the species Keruing or Kempas.

(b) The Contractor shall supply and fix strong and sufficient timbering to support the sides and/or bottom of the excavation to the satisfaction of the S.O. and shall maintain the same until the constructional work is sufficiently advanced, in the opinion of the S.O. to permit the timbering to be withdrawn, which shall be conducted only under the personal supervision of a competent person employed by the Contractor.

(c) The Contractor shall carry out such timbering and shoring with due consideration to full flow or flooding conditions all to the satisfaction of the S.O..

(d) The Contractor is required to submit to the S.O. drawings and calculations showing details of the proposed timbering for approval. Where excavation exceeds a depth of 4m, the Contractor is required to engage a registered Professional Engineer to submit the design and supervises the erection of the timbering. No excavation work may start until the timbering details are approved. Where excavations for culvert structures are required, the Contractor must submit the full details of the proposed timbering methods within one month of the date of Acceptance of Tender. Failure to submit and obtain approval of details expeditiously may result in delays with a consequent claim for damage. The Contractor shall not be entitled to any extension of Time for Completion on this ground. Notwithstanding the approval given, the S.O. reserves the right to instruct the Contractor to improve, alter, revise and strengthen the timbering from time to time.

(e) The Contractor shall be responsible for any injury to the work and any consequential damages caused arising out of the removal of the timbering and any advice, permission or approval given by the S.O. relating to the removal of timbering shall not relieve the Contractor from the responsibility specified in the Contract.

f) The S.O. shall have the right to order excavation and construction work to be carried out in such lengths and in such sections of the Works, as will, in his opinion, minimise the danger of such open excavation affecting the stability of any nearby structures or ground, and the Contractor shall have no claim for extra payment on this account. Shoring timbers shall be removed as the work proceeds only if their removal does not endanger existing adjacent structures. Where the S.O. deems it dangerous to remove the shoring timbers, such timbers shall not be removed.

70 Timbering Left-In

The Contractor shall be paid for all timbering left in the excavations on the instruction of the S.O. provided the timber is required to give permanent support to trench sides, services or building. No payment shall be made where timber has to be left in, on the instruction of the S.O. to counter any defect or negligence in the Contractor's execution of the work. Only the actual quantity of timber left in shall be paid. Payment shall not be made for labour in cutting nor for timber in ends thus cut off, nor for the disposal of additional surplus excavated materials due to the leaving in of timber.

71 Steel Trench Sheeting

(a) Where the subsoil conditions are expected to be of a soft and unstable character in trench excavation, the normal methods of timbering will probably prove inadequate to avoid subsidence of the adjoining road surfaces and other services. The Contractor shall be responsible for all such damages as specified elsewhere.

(b) In such circumstances the Contractor shall use Steel Trench Sheeting or Sheet Steel piling adequately supported by timber struts, walings, etc. The Contractor shall be expected to supply, pitch, drive and subsequently remove trench sheeting or piling in accordance with other timbering items specified in the Specifications and the terms Timber or Timbering shall also apply to Steel Trench Sheeting or Sheet Steel Piling throughout.

72 Steel Sheet Piling

(a) The Contractor shall be at liberty to use steel sheet piling for any purpose during the construction of the works, subject to the approval of the S.O. and shall bear all and every expense in connection therewith, including waste and burning off piles if necessary.

(b) Steel sheet piles shall conform to the provisions of B.S.4360 and shall be driven where required and approved or directed by the S.O..

(c) The Contractor is required to engage a registered Professional Engineer to design the layout of the piling and the overall dimensions of the excavation to suit the sheets and corners available and to give sufficient working space for the proper construction of the work. For purposes of this Contract, it shall be clearly and definitely understood that the terms 'timber' or 'timbering' as used in any portion of the Specifications, shall be deemed to include 'Steel Sheet piling'.

73 Liability for Timbering

(a) No work done by the S.O. or the fact that the timbering has complied with the Specification shall absolve the Contractor from his responsibility. The Contractor shall be responsible for making good any damage caused as a result of the timbering failing to give proper support to the sides of the excavation.

(b) The timbering to the sides of excavation for structures shall be carried out in such a way that there is no obstruction caused to the fixing of formwork for the walls. The supporting strut and walings shall be removed by the Contractor in stages to suit the progress of concreting.

(c) If the S.O. is not satisfied that the standard of timbering is equal to that shown on the approved drawings or that the sides of the excavations have not been secured in a manner to render such excavations safe for working, he may, after giving the Contractor or his representative one hour notification in writing, instruct another party to supply labour, material, plant, implements and transport to alter the timbering and the cost of such works shall be paid for by the Contractor.

74 Drainage

(a) The Contractor shall note that no existing watercourse shall be filled up until proper diversion drains are provided. The Contractor shall ensure that there is no blockage in the existing drains and storm water can be effectively drained.

(b) Excavated surfaces upon or against which concrete is to be deposited shall be kept dry and clean. Special precautions are to be taken to prevent water from washing out cement or fines whilst the concrete is setting.

(c) The Contractor shall keep all excavations clear of water. He shall also take care that at all stages of the Work, the sites are kept properly drained and that standing pools of surface water are not allowed to form.

(d) The Contractor shall drain and dry out the cut area and keep the excavation free from water and mud from any sources. He shall provide and maintain an approved system of temporary drains, cut-off drains, sumps, pumps, well-points, dewatering equipment and all other measures to keep surface water out of the excavation and to remove from the excavations, surface water, sub-soil water or water from any other source. The Contractor shall supply all pumps, fuel, labour, attendance etc., to deal with any dewatering within the excavation and the working site as directed by the S.O..

(e) The Contractor shall construct and maintain such temporary drains as may be necessary to remove water from the excavation to existing drains and to drain any ponds which may have formed in the site. Water from the work shall be conveyed in such a manner as not to cause any nuisance or injury to the public.

(f) The Contractor shall execute the above with due consideration for full flow conditions and the execution shall be such that damages to construction works and flooding to the surrounding catchment shall be the minimum possible under the worst flood conditions.

(g) The Contractor shall be responsible for preventing silt or debris of any kind from entering the drains. Any silting of the watercourses and drains arising from the Contractor's failure to comply with this clause shall be removed at his own expense whether or not within the site.

(h) On completion of the work, all temporary drains, ditches, sumps, etc. shall be demolished and the ground shall be reinstated to its original condition and to the S.O.'s satisfaction.

75 Ventilation

(a) General The Contractor shall provide adequate ventilation and efficient apparatus to keep all excavations, trenches and structures, pipelines and manholes free from gases whether generated in the strata, arising from the use of explosives for blasting, sewerage gases or otherwise and he shall take precautions to ascertain that they are in a safe condition before allowing workmen to proceed.

(b) When working in Culverts and Closed Drains (i) A combustible gas detector and an oxygen meter should be used to test for combustible gases and oxygen at the entrance to a culvert or at the opening of manhole before forced ventilation of the culvert or manhole is carried out.
(ii) The manhole, culvert or closed drain must be adequately forced ventilated before workers go in for work. Ventilation must be continued without stoppages while the workers are inside.
(iii) The workmen should thoroughly check the whole closed drain or culvert (within which they are working) for combustible gas and oxygen.
(iv) Lifelines should be attached to workers going into culverts and closed drains.
(v) Workers should quickly come out of the culvert or closed drain when combustible gas or oxygen deficiency is detected. When combustible gas is detected, no naked flames and smoking should be allowed near the affected area. The PowerGas Pte Ltd must be immediately notified.

76 Approval of Excavation

The Contractor shall report to the S.O. when the excavations are ready to receive hardcore or lean concrete sub-base and shall await the inspection and approval of the S.O.. Any hardcore or lean concrete sub-base or other work put in before the excavations have been inspected and approved by S.O. shall, if so directed, be removed and new work substituted in accordance with the specification, all at the expense of the Contractor.

77 Backfilling

(a) The Contractor may reuse selected and approved excavated materials for backfilling works. Any unsuitable and unwanted excavated materials shall be carted away to approved dumping grounds.

(b) The Contractor shall import approved granular or other filling materials for the backfilling works as and when required by the S.O.. He shall be paid at the rates in the Bill of Quantities.

(c) All backfilling works must be carried out in layers of not more than 600mm. Each layer shall be thoroughly rammed before the next layer is placed. In all cases, the backfilled materials should be mechanically compacted to the satisfaction of the S.O..

(d) 'Unsuitable Materials' shall mean those materials included but not limited to the following: (i) Materials from swamps; (ii) Peat, logs, stumps, perishable material and soft clay; (iii) Materials susceptible to spontaneous combustion; and (iv) Soil of liquid limit exceeding 70 and/or plasticity index exceeding 35.

78 Withdrawal of Timbering

Runners and sheets and sheet steel piles shall be withdrawn in lifts as backfilling and compaction is taking place. Any damage caused by subsidence of the excavation resulting from the careless withdrawal of support shall be the responsibility of the Contractor.

79 Disposal of Surplus excavated materials and Unwanted materials

(a) The surplus excavated materials left after refilling of excavations and consolidating and all unwanted materials such as construction waste materials shall be carted away from the site of the works and deposited at the Contractor's own dumping ground at his own cost as directed by the S.O.. It is prohibited to deposit surplus excavated materials and unwanted materials on private land adjacent to the site of the works unless the Contractor can produces the written authority of both the owner and occupier of the land. No surplus or other excavated materials may be removed from the site except with the written authority of the S.O.. When surplus excavated material is carted to tips provided by the Contractor, such tips shall be approved by the S.O..

(b) Removal Of Surplus Excavated Material And Cleaning up of Transportation Route

(i) The Contractor shall allow in his excavation prices for the removal and disposal of all surplus excavated material and all other unwanted materials. The Contractor is prohibited from dumping excavated material and all other unwanted materials on any vacant land, roadside or drains. The S.O. may employ another party to remove and dispose of the excavated materials or unwanted materials and all costs incurred thereof shall be deducted from any monies due or to be due to the Contractor.
(ii) When removing surplus soil, as directed by the S.O., the Contractor shall, with dispatch, clear up all carriageways, footways and verges interfered with, and leave the site of the works free. If surplus soil is tipped into or removed from private property, the operation shall be executed with the least possible amount of inconvenience to the owner and occupier of the same.

(c) Ownership of Surplus Excavated Material

(i) Surplus excavated material will not become the property of the Contractor and nothing in this Specification shall be constructed so as to give the Contractor the right of ownership of it.
(ii) The Contractor will not be permitted to use gravel, sand, puddle clay, or other materials arising out of the excavations, for incorporation in the permanent works, except with the special permission in writing of the S.O..

(d) Haulage Route On Land

(i) The Contractor shall obtain permissions from the Land Transport Authority, Traffic Police, National Environment Authority (NEA) and other relevant authorities on the use of public roads for haulage purposes and pay all fees in connection thereto. The Contractor shall comply with all the requirements/ directions issued from time to time by the aforesaid authorities and the S.O. throughout the contract period. The S.O. or any of the aforesaid authorities reserves the right to withdraw his permission for the use of the public roads as haulage routes. No extension of time and/or extra claim arising therefrom will be entertained by the Board.
(ii) The Contractor shall be responsible for all damages to the roads caused by his vehicles and to rectify them to the satisfaction of the S.O. and Land Transport Authority.
(iii) The Contractor shall at all times maintain adequate workers to keep the haulages routes clean of droppings by scraping, sweeping, watering or by any other methods as may be directed by the S.O..

80 Filling and Embankment Work

Filling shall be compacted at its natural moisture content until its dry density measured in accordance with B.S.1377 is at least 95% of its dry density measured by the Procter Test at the same moisture content of the material. If however, the moisture content measured in accordance with the above mentioned B.S. is lower than 15% then water shall be added to bring the moisture content up to 15% with tolerance of 2%.

81 Cutting

(a) The face of excavation in cutting shall be formed to plane and even slopes to the gradients shown on the drawings.

(b) Temporary drains shall be cut and maintained at all times along the top and bottom of the slopes to prevent erosion of the surfaces by rainwater runoff.

82 Bakau Piling

(a) Where the excavated formation is, in the opinion of the S.O. unable to support the loads arising from the completed works without undue settlement, the S.O. may require the driving of bakau piling of such lengths and centres as may be directed.

(b) The S.O. may call for test piles to be driven or simple soil investigation to be carried out in different sections of the excavations to determine the stability of the ground below the formation level. From the results of test piles or soil investigation report, the approved requirements of piles will be determined.

(c) Where piles are driven, bakau piles as specified, shall be driven straight and in approved positions and to the full length of piles or to lengths specified by the S.O. and any pile not correctly driven shall be duplicated at the Contractor's expense.

(d) Where necessary piles shall be joined together to form lengths longer than those naturally available. Such joints shall be designed to firmly secure the two sections and to bring the pile ends into close contact for driving.

(e) Piling shall be carried out by experienced operators and shall be in accordance with the instructions of the S.O.. The piles shall be driven with a piling frame with a drop hammer of approved weight of not less than 200 kg to a final set of 300mm for the last 10 blows from a drop of 1.0m to 1.5m heights.

(f) On completion of bakau piling all the pile heads shall be sawn off to the required level. Excavation shall be trimmed from around the piles and the pile heads cleaned free of clay and other soils.

83 Other Pile

(a) Where the loads, conditions or water table are unsuitable for the use of bakau piling, the Contractor shall propose an alternative type of piling and method to the S.O. for approval.

(b) The Contractor shall submit full details of the type of piling, load testing, sets proposed and etc. to the S.O. for approval before the work commences.

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Concrete


84 Storage of Cement

(a) Different type of cements shall be stored apart from ordinary Portland Cement and from each other, but under similar conditions.

(b) Cement shall not be kept on site longer than necessary and in no circumstances longer than 3 months, but at least sufficient cement for one's week consumption shall be left in store.

(c) Cement that becomes lumpy or otherwise deteriorated in transit or storage shall not be used for concreting. All cement unfit for use shall be removed from site immediately.

(d) All cement shall be fresh when delivered. Cement of different types shall not be mixed with one another. Consignment shall be used in order of delivery. Admixture shall be used only if approved. With each delivery the Contractor shall send to the S.O. a memorandum of the quantity delivered and the manufacturer's test certificate.

(e) If the Contractor proposes to use cement delivered in bulk he shall obtain the prior approval of the S.O. as to the method of delivery, storage and measurement.

(f) If bagged cement is used, the Contractor shall provide on the site of the works a building or shed for storing the cement. This building or shed must be watertight, have thoroughly dry floors raised at least 500mm above ground water and walls, be well lighted and ventilated and be capable of holding at least 2 week's consumption of cement. Different consignments of cement shall be kept separate and the cement shall be used in the order in which it has been delivered on the Works.

(g) If cement is supplied in bags a suitable weighing scale shall be provided and shall, if required by the S.O., be used for checking the weight of every bag at the Contractor's expense. Bags under weight or more than 2% in excess of the normal weight shall be rejected and removed from the site.

(h) Cement shall be kept in the store until it is actually required for use on the Works, and any cement temporarily placed near the mixer or elsewhere, after removal from the store, shall be adequately protected by approved means. Cement shall not be kept in a temporary store, except in so far as is necessary to allow for efficient organisation of the mixing plant.

85 Testing of Cement

(a) The S.O. and his representative shall have access to the cement store at all reasonable hours, and shall be furnished with the means of identifying the several consignments of cement.

(b) The Manufacturer's test certificate will normally be accepted as proof of compliance with the Specification but the S.O. may require further tests to be made at the Contractor's own cost.

86 Sample of Aggregate

(a) Samples of aggregates shall be submitted to the S.O. for approval. They shall be plainly labelled with the description of the material and the source of supply. For the purpose of laboratory testing, samples of fine aggregates, each of about 0.015m3 shall be submitted in airtight containers. Samples of course aggregates, each of about 0.03m3 shall be submitted in suitable containers. The cost of testing shall be borne by the Contractor.

(b) The Contractor shall secure his supplies or aggregates from the source as approved by the S.O.. Quality and grading of the aggregates delivered to site should at no time deviate from that of the approved samples. The S.O. reserves the right to order additional tests to be performed for aggregates delivered to site or reject the supply which he deems unfit for use in the works.

(c) Should it become necessary to change the source or characteristics of the aggregates supplied, samples or aggregates from the intended source of supply shall be submitted for approval. No blending of aggregates shall be allowed without prior approval of the S.O..

87 Storage of Aggregates

(a) The fine and coarse aggregates shall be stored separately and in such a manner that segregation of the various sized particles shall not occur, the stock piles shall be formed on a platform of weak concrete, timber or similar approved hard standing and aggregates shall be kept clean and free from foreign substances.

(b) Aggregates shall not be unloaded on roadways or pathways and the S.O. may reject any stockpile or part of a stockpile if improper storage has, in his opinion, caused contamination of the aggregates.

(c) Storage piles of aggregate shall be provided with proper drainage.

88 Batching of Concrete

(a) The quantity of cement, fine aggregate and coarse aggregate should be measured by weight. A separate approved weighing device should be provided for weighing cement.

(b) The proportions of aggregates and water should be adjusted for the moisture content of the aggregates.

(c) The amount of water should be measured by mean of a calibrated and readily adjustable device which will permit the discharge of water to the mixer only while the latter is being charged. After the device has been set to discharge the required quantity of water, it shall not be re-adjusted, altered or interfered in any way without the consent of the S.O..

(d) Any solid admixtures to be added should be measured by weight but liquid of paste admixtures may be measured by volume or by weight.

(e) The accuracy of the measuring equipment should be within + 3% of the quantity of cement, water and aggregate and +5% of the quantity of any admixture being used.

(f) Should the contractor wish to use cement in bulk, the method of measurement shall be submitted to the S.O. for approval.

(g) For small quantities of concrete, the S.O. may allow batching by volume. The gauge boxes should be of an approved shape and design and of such sizes that their capacities shall represent to a simple proportion of the required quantities of aggregates for a batch. The contractor shall carry out tests on site at his own cost to determine the bulk factors of the cement and aggregates used and proper adjustment made while batching. The materials should be placed in the gauge boxes to their natural bulk and no compaction should be applied.

89 Mix Proportion

(a) The mix proportion shall be designed to give the required composition, strength, durability, workability, permeability and other characteristics as specified. The mix design shall be submitted to the S.O. for approval. Unless otherwise specified for protection against aggressive soil conditions, designed concrete mixes shall comply with the specifications in the following table: Table 89.1 SPECIFICATIONS FOR DESIGNED CONCRETE MIX

Grade C55 C50 C45 C40 C35 C30 C25 C20 C15 C10
Characteristic strength N/mm2 at 28 days 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 -
Minimum cement content in kg/m3 of fully compacted concrete 475 425 375 350 350 325 300 270 205 175
Maximum cement content in kg/m3 of fully compacted concrete 550 550 550 550 550 550 550 550 550 550
Maximum water/cement ratio 0.4 0.45 0.45 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.55 0.6 0.7 0.8

(b) The Contractor is required to design two or more mix proportions to suit the actual conditions of work.

(c) The S.O. may approve the use of 'nominal mixes' in place of 'designed mix' provided:

(i) the works are of minor nature or involving a small quantity of concrete; and
(ii) the strength of the concrete is still the responsibility of the Contractor.

(d) The S.O. reserves the right to instruct the Contractor to modify, alter, improve and change the concrete mix from time to time during the progress of the works.

90 Trial Mix

(a) Before concreting commences the Contractor shall, at his own expense, make the trial mixes to determine the mix proportions required for each Class of concrete and for each degree of workability required. Only materials which the Contractor intends to use for concreting on the works shall be used in preparing these mixes.

(b) Prior to carrying out the trial mixes, the Contractor shall submit his proposed trial mix proportions for approval by the S.O..

(c) The trial mixes shall comply with the following requirement in Table 89.1.

(d) The cube strength requirements are as follows:- Grade Characteristic Strength N/mm2 Characteristic Strength N/mm2 at 7 daysat 28 days C55 36.8 55 C50 33.5 50 C45 30.2 45 C40 26.8 40 C35 23.5 35 C30 20.1 30 C25 16.7 25 C20 13.4 20 C15 10.1 15
The above cube strength applies to ordinary Portland cement. If the S.O. requires to permit the use of cement other than ordinary Portland cement or Sulphate Resisting Cement, he will specify the preliminary cube strengths required.

(f) The Contractor shall make arrangements for the testing of these preliminary cubes and the cost of making, curing, transporting and testing of all cubes shall be borne by the Contractor.

(g) On completion of these trial mixes the Contractor shall submit for approval the mix proportion he intends to use. No concreting shall be permitted until the mix has been approved by the S.O..

91 Site Testing of Aggregate

The Contractor shall supply and maintain free of charge, for the exclusive use of the S.O., the necessary apparatus for carrying out grading tests for aggregates as set out in S.S.73.

92 Workability & Consistency of Concrete

(a) The workability shall be such as to produce a concrete which can be well compacted, be worked into corners of the shuttering and around the reinforcements, give the specified surface finish and attain the specified strength. The required workability of any part of the work shall be determined by the Contractor, subject to the agreement of the S.O.. It shall be reviewed during the progress of the work and adjustments shall be made as necessary subject to the agreement of the S.O.. Slump Test for Normal Slump Concrete

(b) Workability shall be assessed on site at the discharge point of either the mixer or the ready mixed concrete vehicle by means of the slump test in accordance with B.S.1881:Part 102:1983. If the measured slump deviates from the agreed value by more than ±25mm or one third of the required value whichever is greater, the concrete shall be rejected unless the S.O. decides otherwise.

(c) Alternatively, the slump of concrete delivered in a ready-mixed concrete vehicle may be obtained in accordance with Clause 15.5 of B.S.5328. The compliance requirements shall then conform to Clause 16.6 of B.S.5328. Where available, the relevant Singapore Standard shall supersede B.S.5328.

93 Testing of Concrete Cube

(a) Compliance of the specified concrete strength shall be judged by tests made on cubes at an age of 7 days and 28 days respectively. A minimum of six cubes shall be taken for each 50 cum or part thereof for each concreting day. The S.O. or his representative may require additional cubes to be taken if deemed necessary.

(b) Each of the test cubes shall be made from a sample taken from a randomly selected batch of concrete. Wherever more than one batch of concrete is used, each of the six cubes should preferably be taken from different batches.

(c) The test cubes shall be made and cured in accordance with S.S.78. Concrete should be placed in the standard steel mould in layers approx. 50mm deep and each layer compacted by hand or by vibration. When compacting by hand, a steel bar weighing 1.8kg, 300mm long having a ramming face 25mm square shall be used. The number of strokes per layer shall not be less than 35 for 150mm cubes.

(d) The test cubes should be kept moist for 16-24 hours in an approved manner. If the concrete has not achieved sufficient strength to enable demoulding to be carried out within the stated period the demoulding shall be delayed for a further 24 hours. After demoulding, the cubes shall be marked for identification and shall subsequently be submerged in an approved curing tank until they are transported to the test laboratory.

(e) The Contractor shall pay all costs incurred in making, maturing, delivering and testing concrete cubes. The Contractor shall maintain a minimum of 12 steel moulds manufactured in accordance with S.S.78 on site whenever concreting is in progress. In the event of materials failing to conform to the specified standard, the S.O. shall instruct that part of the works concerned shall be taken down or cut out and replaced to comply with the Specification of that additional measures or work shall be provided to make the works secure all at the Contractor's expenses.

(f) Tests of the concrete cubes shall be carried out at an approved engineering laboratory in accordance to S.S.78. For each set of six test cubes, three shall be tested for 7-day strength and the remaining three for 28-day strength. The strength requirements of the test cubes are as in Clause 90(d).

(g) Any concrete cube failing to reach the specified cube strength at 7 days will be accepted if the required cube strength at 28 days is attained but no further concrete may be placed in an adjoining position until the results of the 28 days test are obtained. Compliance Requirements

(h) Compliance with the specified characteristic strength is attained if the average strength determined from each group of four consecutive test results and if each individual test result complies with the appropriate limits in columns A and B of Table 93.1 respectively.
(i) Where concrete for the project is supplied by more than one source, the compliance determination shall be based on the groups of results analysed separately from each source.
(j) Where less than four test results are available for a particular grade of concrete from a particular source, compliance shall be based on groups of two or three test results (the higher available number shall be used) in accordance with Table 93.1. Table 93.1 Compressive Strength Compliance Requirements

Specified Characteristic Strength/mm2 Group of test results A B
    Average of the group test results exceeds the specific characteristics strength by at least MPa (N/mm2) Any individual test result is not less than the Specified characteristic strength minus MPa (N/mm2)
20 and above First 2
First 3
Any consecutive 4
1
2
3
3
3
3
Below 20 First 2
First 3
Any consecutive 4
0
1
2
2
2
2

Quantity of Concrete represented by strength test results
(k) The quantity of concrete represented by any group of four consecutive test results shall be the quantity represented by the first to the last test samples in the group. When a test result fails to comply with the requirements of Column B of Table 93.1, only the quantity of concrete represented by the particular sample shall be at risk.

(l) The quantity of concrete considered to be represented by a particular sample shall be the actual sampling rate, i.e. if for a particular pour of Q m3, t samples are taken, then the quantity of concrete represented by a particular sample shall be (Q/t) m3.


Action to be taken in the event of Non-Compliance

(m) In the event of non-compliance, the Contractor shall redesign his mix based on an increased target mean strength. The section of work represented by the samples which fail the test shall be removed and replaced by concrete meeting this Specification. Alternatively, the S.O. may direct that other measures be taken to make the works secure. The S.O. may instruct that additional tests be carried out on the hardened concrete.

(n) All works instructed under this clause shall be at the Contractor's expense and no extension of time will be granted for such works.

94 Mixing Concrete

(a) Concrete shall be thoroughly mixed in a batch type mechanical mixer. The quantity of material in each batch shall not exceed the rated capacity of the mixer. Mixing shall continue until the concrete is uniform in colour and consistency.

(b) The mixer shall be operated at the speed recommended by the manufacturer. The mixing time shall not be less than 2 minutes for portable mixer of 1 cum capacity and less. For larger capacities, the mixing time shall be increased 15 seconds for each additional cubic metre. For stationary mixing plant operating at high speed the mixing time required may be reduced by the S.O. after consideration of the manufacturer's specification and the plant's performance. The mixing time shall be reckoned from the time when all the solid materials are in the mixer. No portion of the time required for discharging shall be considered as part of the mixing time.

(c) The first batch of concrete fed into the drum or pan shall have an increase of an appropriate amount of dry mortar similar in proportion to that of the concrete to be mixed and of mixing water for coating the drum or pan.

(d) The entire contents of the drum shall be discharged before the materials for the succeeding batch are fed into the drum or pan. Mixers which have been out of use for more than 30 minutes should be thoroughly cleaned before any fresh concrete is mixed.

(e) No concrete shall be mixed by hand except with the specific approval of the S.O. for a small amount. Where such approval is granted, the Contractor shall at his own expense increase the proportion of cement by 10%. Mixing shall be continued until the concrete is of uniform colour and consistency.

95 Premix and Ready-Mixed ConcreteE

(a) Ready-mixed concrete may be used subject to the approval of the S.O..

(b) The Contractor shall furnish the name of his ready-mixed concrete supplier to the S.O. for approval. He shall make such arrangements as may be required for the S.O. to inspect his supplier's work and provide all facilities for samples of cement, fine and coarse aggregates and admixture to be taken for testing.

(c) Notwithstanding any such inspection made and/or approval given by the S.O., the Contractor shall take full responsibility for ensuring that all ready-mixed concrete supplied shall conform to S.S.119 and this Specification. Concrete that does not comply with this Specification shall be rejected and removed from site.

(d) The Contractor shall furnish to and obtain the approval of the S.O. at least 1 day in advance of the date set for each casting of concrete, the number of transit trucks/truck mixers/truck agitators proposed to be used to supply the concrete and the frequency at which the loads of concrete are to be delivered to the site.

(e) For each truck load of concrete delivered the following information shall appear on the delivery docket:
(i) name of ready-mixed concrete batch plant
(ii) serial number of docket
(iii) date and the licence number of the truck (iv) name of the purchaser (v) name and location of job
(vi) specified characteristic concrete strength and the amount of cement used (kg) or the mix proportions
(vii) quantity of concrete
(viii) time of loading or of first mixing of cement and aggregate, whichever is earlier
(ix) agreed slump
(x) maximum size of coarse aggregates specified
(xi) trade name of admixture, if any
(xii) the signature of the Site Supervisor who shall also enter the time of arrival of the truck
(xiii) time of completion of discharge
(xiv) position where concrete is placed
(xv) number of cubes taken, if any, and cube references
(xvi) any other requirements as may be instructed

(f) One copy of the docket shall be given to the S.O. on delivery.

(g) The S.O. reserves the right to instruct the Contractor to change the supplier due to unsatisfactory performance or to rescind his approval for further use of ready-mixed concrete during the progress of the works, if any of the requirements has, in his opinion, not been satisfactorily complied with. No claim for cost in respect of this clause shall be entertained by the S.O..

(h) No water in excess of the quantity required in the approved mix shall be allowed to be added to the concrete to increase its workability affected by elapsed time and/or temperature.
(i) While it is not being discharged, the concrete in a transit truck/truck mixer/agitator shall be kept continuously agitated. The concrete shall be placed in its final position and left undisturbed within 2 hours from the time when the cement was added to the mix.

96 Concreting Programme

For structural concrete works the approval of the S.O. shall be obtained prior to the commencement of concreting, to the sequences of concreting and to the form and position of all vertical and horizontal construction joints. Details of the method of transporting, placing, compacting and finishing concrete shall also be submitted for the approval of the S.O..

97 Handling and Transporting Concrete

(a) The concrete shall be distributed from the mixer to the position of placing in the works by approved means which do not cause segregation or otherwise impair the quality of the concrete. Concrete which has in the opinion of the S.O. become unduly segregated shall be remixed by hand before being deposited in the work.

(b) Details of any proposed pumping conveyor belt or chuting plant must be approved by the S.O. before such plant is delivered to the site.

(c) All distributing equipment shall be cleaned before commencing mixing and distribution of the concrete and such equipment shall be kept free from set concrete.

(d) The rate of supply shall match with the rate of pumping.

(e) Prior to commencement of pumping, check must be carried out to ensure that the feeder hopper and the pipelines are free from obstruction, the coupling pipe joints are properly tightened and the pipeline is firmly secured and anchored. Pipeline and its support must not be rigidly connected to formwork.

(f) Pumping shall commence first with blowing of water through the pipeline, followed by cement mortar, both of sufficient quantities and all these shall be discharged away from the area to be concreted.

(g) Pumping and the agitator inside the feeder hopper shall normally be operated in a continuous manner. When a stoppage is unavoidable, the concrete inside the hopper must be maintained at a level high enough to prevent any entry of air into the pipeline to form an air pocket. For temporary stoppage, the concrete in the pipeline shall be moved occasionally by a few strokes of the piston of the pump, thus preventing it from sticking.

(h) Pumping shall be stopped in the following occasions:
(i) presence of foreign matters which may block the valves or pipelines
(ii) level of concrete in the hopper is too low
(iii) an unsuitable batch of concrete is placed in the hopper
(iv) extra lengths of pipe are to be added
(i) Foreign matter and unsuitable batch of concrete must be removed immediately from the hopper before pumping is resumed.
(j) When extra sections of pipe are to be added, each length or pipe must be thoroughly wetted inside but no free water shall remain in the pipe.
(k) When the pipeline is exposed to the sun, the line shall be protected against absorption of heat by covering with damp sacking or straw mats during pumping.

98 Placing Concrete

(a) No concrete shall be placed prior to the S.O.'s approval.

(b) Immediately prior to placing the concrete, the shuttering shall be well wetted and inspection openings shall be closed.

(c) The interval between adding the cement to aggregate and the completion of the placing of the concrete shall not exceed 30 minutes. When the mix is transported by purpose made agitators, operating continuously, and when retarders are used such interval may be extended to maximum 2 hours but the interval between the discharge from the agitators and the placing of the concrete shall not exceed 20 minutes.

(d) Suspended gangways for the workmen placing and vibrating the concrete are to be provided wherever possible and so constructed as to avoid damaging and displacing the reinforcement. Steel fixers and carpenters shall be constantly in attendance while concreting is in progress to maintain the reinforcement in correct position.

(e) When concrete is to be placed on hardened concrete, the receiving surfaces must be thoroughly hacked, roughened and cleaned of all dust, loose particles, grease, oil and other materials. Any laitance or soft mortar shall be removed. Hardened concrete shall be moistened thoroughly before new concrete is placed on it. No pools of water shall be left standing on the wetted surface when the new concrete is placed.

(f) Except where otherwise approved, concrete shall be placed in the shuttering by shovels or other approved implements and shall not be dropped from a height or handled in a manner which cause segregation. Accumulation of set concrete on the reinforcement shall be avoided. Concrete shall be placed directly in the permanent position and shall not be worked along the shuttering to that position.

(g) Any water accumulating on the surface of newly placed concrete shall be removed by approved means and no further concrete shall be placed thereon until such water has been removed.

(h) No unset concrete shall be brought into contact with unset concrete containing cement of a different type or manufacture.

(i) Unless otherwise approved, concrete shall be placed in a single operation to the full thickness of slabs, beams and similar members, and shall be placed in horizontal layers not exceeding 0.6m deep or 200mm which manually compacted in walls, columns and similar members.

(j) If stopping of concrete placing is unavoidable elsewhere, a construction joint shall be made where the work is stopped, subject to the agreement of the S.O..

(k)Tsremies, bottom-opening skips or other equipment used for placing concrete under water shall be of approved design and shall be used as instructed by the S.O.. Concrete placed between tides shall be shuttered on all faces, the top face being closed immediately after completion of placing and before submersion by rising tide. No pumping of water that may adversely affect the concrete being placed shall be done while placing or within 24 hours of placing the concrete. Cement content shall be increased by 10% for underwater concreting.

99 Compaction of Concrete

(a) All concrete shall be compacted to produce a dense homogeneous mass. Unless otherwise agreed by the S.O., it shall be compacted with mechanical vibration. Sufficient numbers of vibrators in serviceable condition shall be used on site to compact the concrete at the rate at which it is placed, and adequate number of standby vibrators shall be readily available for use in case of breakdowns.

(b) Vibrators shall be of sturdy construction, adequately powered and capable of transmitting to the concrete not less than 10,000 cycles per minute for internal type and 3,000 cycles per minute for external type.

(c) When screed vibrators are used for the compaction of concrete, two passes shall be made, one for compacting and one for finishing. For the compacting pass, the concrete shall, before application of the screed, be roughly levelled off at a predetermined height above the level, of the forms - this height or surcharge shall be fixed by the S.O. during trial on the first slab to be compacted in this manner. Compaction shall be obtained by lifting the screed forward in increments onto the surcharged concrete and keeping it in position after each increment of forward movement until the concrete beneath the screed has settled to the level of the forms. The finishing pass shall be made at a sufficiently short interval after the compacting pass to enable any further finishing or floating required to be done by hand to be completed before the concrete attains its initial set.

(d) Vibration, with any type of vibrator, shall not be continued in any one spot to the extent that pools of grout are formed. Care shall be taken to avoid any disturbance of concrete which has become too stiff to regain plasticity when vibrated.

(e) Vibration shall not be applied by way of the reinforcement. Where vibrators of the immersion type are used, contact with reinforcement and all inserts shall be avoided so far as is practicable.

(f) Vibration shall not be used as a means of distributing heaped concrete into position.

(g) After being compacted and finished, the concrete must be left absolutely undisturbed while setting.

100 Concreting through Water

(a) Concrete shall not be deposited under water without the prior consent in writing of the S.O.. The Contractor shall submit his proposed method in detail of placing concrete through water for the approval of the S.O.. A concrete mix shall be designed for this purpose with a high workability of approximately 150mm slump and an increased cement of 25%.

(b) The extra cost involved in placing concrete under water and that of the designed concrete mix shall be borne by the contractor unless otherwise specified.

101 Finish of Concrete

Concrete to Receive applied finish

(a) When the concrete is to receive an applied finish, the formwork shall be made of closely jointed wrought boards. Alternatively, steel or other materials may also be used, subject to the S.O.'s agreement. The removal of formwork is to be carried out in accordance with Clause 114 (a) and (b). The concrete face shall then be roughened by approved means to form a key before the finish is applied.

Slabs to Receive Topping

(b) The top face of slab intended to receive topping shall be first spaded and then left roughened with approved means.

(c) Just prior to placing the topping, the base slab shall be thoroughly cleaned, prepared for bond and wetted. No pools of water shall be left standing on the wetted surface. A thin coat of neat cement grout shall be applied onto the surface of the slab for a short distance ahead of the topping. The wearing surface shall be applied before the grout has hardened.

(d) When surface hardeners are required to be used, the Contractor shall submit for the S.O.'s approval, the type, colour, composition, details of manufacture and the manufacturer's method of use. Any hardener consisting of soluble alkaline compounds, rust and materials designed to disguise rust shall not be allowed to be used. Upon approval of the type, the application of the hardener shall be as specified by the manufacturer. Permanently exposed concrete finishes derived from formwork

(e) The formwork for permanently exposed concrete shall be specially designed to provide the required finish. The faces of the formwork against which the concrete is to be placed shall be hard and with a wrought finish or lined with an approved non-staining form lining if required. An approved non-staining form oil shall be used to coat the face to facilitate easy removal of the formwork. The entire formwork shall be sufficiently rigid to give clean true finish.

(f)The texture and quality of the surface finish shall be consistently maintained throughout the project. The type of cement, formwork materials, form oil and the source of the aggregate shall remain unchanged at all stages of the project. The Contractor shall, at the commencement of the work, ensure that adequate supplies of these materials are available for the duration of the construction.

(g) During the placing of the concrete, the Contractor shall take special care to thoroughly compact the concrete especially in areas nearer the formwork in order that the finished surface is free of water and air holes.

(h) After the formwork is carefully removed, the Contractor shall notify the S.O. who shall inspect the surface. If instructed by the S.O., the Contractor shall then proceed to remove any fins and wash down the surface. (i) Thereafter, only the most noticeable surface blemishes shall be filled with a cement and fine aggregate paste, the colour of which shall match the colour of the concrete.

(j) All finished work shall be very well protected from damage, staining, discolouration and any other defect at all stages of construction.

Slab finish without Topping

(k) The top face of a slab which is not to be covered with other materials shall be levelled and floated while unset to a smooth finish at the levels or falls shown on the drawings or elsewhere. The floating shall be done so as not to bring an excess of mortar to the surface of the concrete. Indentation in the surface of the concrete shall be formed by approved implements to the depths and patterns described.

102Protection and Curing of Concrete

(a) Immediately after the placing and compaction of concrete, the exposed surfaces shall be protected against moisture evaporation for a minimum period of 14 days or for such period of time as the S.O. may direct.

(b) The method of curing concrete shall be to the approval of the S.O.. When wet coverings such as gunny sack, cotton mats or other moisture retaining fabrics are used, they shall be placed as soon as the concrete has hardened sufficiently to prevent surface damage. The wet coverings shall be clean and free from materials detrimental to the concrete and such wet coverings shall be kept moist with a constant spray of water.

(c)The S.O. may permit the use of membranes or other curing compounds. Such materials shall then be applied strictly in accordance to the manufacturer's specifications and instructions.

(d) For concreting of thick sections, the contractor shall take adequate measures to prevent the formation of plastic shrinkage cracks on the concrete surfaces. Such measures may take the form of a continuous fine spray of water or other approved means to reduce the rate of moisture evaporation from the freshly placed concrete surfaces.

(e) No load of any kind, however light, shall be allowed on fresh concrete which has not properly hardened. The Contractor shall prevent his men from walking or laying planks or placing other loads or materials on fresh concrete unless with the approval of the S.O.. Temperature of Fresh Concrete

(f) The temperature of fresh concrete shall be taken in accordance with B.S.5328.

(g) The temperature at the point of delivery shall not exceed the prevailing shade temperature by more than 6ºC.

103 Tests on Hardened Concrete

Core Test

(a) The S.O. reserves the right to direct that samples be cored from any portion of works for the purpose of examination and testing. No claim for cost in respect of this clause shall be entertained by the S.O..

(b) The cutting equipment and method of coring to obtain specimens shall be approved by the S.O..

(c) The specimens shall be dealt with in accordance with B.S.1881. Prior to preparation for testing, the specimens shall be made available for examination by the S.O..

(d) The cored portion of the works shall be made good to the satisfaction of the S.O..

(e) If the equivalent cube strength of the specimen is less than the appropriate specified characteristic strength, the concrete in that part of the works of which it is a sample shall be deemed not to comply with the specified requirements.

(f)Core tests are required to be carried out in the event the work cube test fails or if the S.O. has doubts about the quality of concrete.

104 Concrete Additive

(a) No additives are to be used without the approval of the S.O..

(b) Suitable additives may be used in concrete only with the written approval of the S.O.. The concrete additive, as approved by the S.O., shall only be applied in accordance to the manufacturer's recommendation and instructions.

(c) The suitability of concrete additives shall be verified by trial mixes and laboratory tests at the contractor's own cost should the S.O. deems it necessary.

(d) The Contractor shall be required to furnish the following data to the S.O. prior to the approval for the use of additive:
(i) type and the proprietary brand
(ii) the typical dosage and the effects of under-dosage and over-dosage
(iii) chemical name and main constitutions of the additive
(iv) design dosage and method of use

105 Granolithic Concrete

Granolithic concrete shall consist of one part of Portland, two parts of fine aggregate and three parts of 10mm granite chippings free from dust. In all other respects it shall comply with the remainder of the specification for concrete.

106 Hardcore

(a) Hardcore below foundation shall be laid and compacted to the required crossfalls and levels as indicated in the drawings, fully blinded with granular materials such as unwashed sand or granite dust to the full satisfaction of the S.O. to form a firm base to receive precast units or in-situ concrete. All hardcore with blinding are to be compacted with a mechanical compactor.

(b) Handpitched hardcore behind weepholes shall be prepacked in wire mesh of approved sizes and thickness. The packing of the hardcore shall be done to the full satisfaction of the S.O.. The hardcore used shall be washed before being installed in place.

107 Construction Joint

(a) Construction joints shall be of an approved shape and shall be vertical or horizontal, as required, except that in an inclined or curved member the joint shall be at right angle to the axis of the member. The joints shall be formed only in the place approved by the S.O..

(b) Construction joints shall be provided in the positions described on the drawings or elsewhere and where not so described shall be in accordance with the following:-
(i) joint shall be formed horizontally at the top of a foundation and 75mm below the lowest soffit of the beams meeting at the head of a column.
(ii)A joint shall be formed in the rib of a large tee-beam and ell-beam and 25mm below the soffit of the slab.
(iii) Concrete in a haunch or a splay on a beam or a brace, and in the head of a column where one or more beams meet, shall be placed without a joint at the same time as that in the beam or beams or brace.
(iv) Concrete in the splay at the junction of a wall and a slab shall be placed without a joint at the same time as that in the slab.
(v) Concrete in a beam shall be placed throughout without a joint, but if the provision of a joint is unavoidable the joint shall be provided at a location with minimum shear stress.
(vi) The construction joints shall be arranged so as to minimise the possibility of occurrence of shrinkage cracks. The contractor shall submit a drawing showing the intended sequence of pouring, location and details of such construction joints. No casting shall commence until approval has been received from the S.O..

(c)Where rubber or PVC waterstops are to be used, they shall be sized, fixed and jointed as recommended by the manufacturers. Special junction pieces shall be used wherever required by the nature of the design.

(d) Main construction joints are to be keyed by the use of battens placed in the concrete and subsequently removed.

(e)Before placing new concrete against concrete that has already set or hardened, the face of the old concrete shall be cleaned and roughened to the extent that the largest aggregate is exposed but not disturbed and scum and loose aggregate removed therefrom leaving a surface of clean exposed aggregate. The prepared face shall be slightly wetted prior to the new concrete being placed, to prevent excessive loss of water into it by absorption. The new concrete shall be well rammed against the prepared face upon placing.

108 Permanent Joint

Expansion joints, contraction joints or other permanent structural joints shall be provided in the positions and of the form as detailed in drawings and as described in the Bills of Quantities.



Reinforcement


109 Bending Reinforcement

(a) Reinforcement bars shall be cut and/or bent in accordance with B.S.4466. Reinforcement bars shall be bent by machine or other approved means producing a gradual and even motion. Bars shall be bent cold unless the S.O. shall approve bars of over 25mm in size being bent hot. Bars bent hot shall not be heated beyond cherry-red colour and after bending shall be allowed to cool slowly without quenching. Bars depending on cold-working for their strength shall be bent cold.

(b) Where it is necessary to reshape steel previously bent, this should only be done with the S.O.'s approval and each bar should be inspected for sign of fracture.

(c) Bends shall comply with the dimensions given in the bending schedule. Dimensions of bent bars and internal dimensions of binders and the like shall not exceed the dimensions given on the bar schedule or elsewhere, and shall not be more than half per cent shorter than the specified dimensions.

(d) The internal radii of bends shall be not less than twice the size of the bar unless described to the contrary. The internal radii of the bends at corners of binders or the like shall be half the size of the bar embraced by the binder. For the purpose of this requirement the size of a bar shall mean the diameter of plain round bar or wire.

(e) Where steel fabric is required as reinforcement it shall be carefully and accurately bent to the required shape when cold, either with a bending machine or edge block. All bending shall be done before the fabric is laid in position and no heating or welding will be allowed. Steel fabric should be carefully straightened if they come in rolls.

110 Fixing Reinforcement

(a)Reinforcement shall be accurately fixed and by approved means maintained in the position described on the drawings or elsewhere. Bars intended to be in contact at passing points shall be securely wired together at all such points with 1.626mm (16 SWG) diameter annealed soft-iron tying wire. Binders and the like shall tightly embrace the bars with which they are intended to be in contact and shall be securely wired or if approved welded thereto.

(b) Reinforcement shall be free from pitting, loose rust, mill scale, paint, oil, grease, adhering earth or any other material that may impair the bond between the concrete and the reinforcement or that may cause corrosion of the reinforcement or disintegration of the concrete. No adhering limewash or cement grout shall be permitted.

(c) Immediately before concreting, the reinforcement shall be examined for accuracy of placing and cleanliness and corrected if necessary.

(d) No concreting shall be commenced until the S.O. has inspected the reinforcement in position and until his approval has been obtained.

(e) Reinforcement projecting from work being concreted or already concreted shall not be bent out of its correct position for any reason unless approved and shall be protected from deformation or other damage.

(f) The cover of concrete to the reinforcement shall be as described on the drawings and shall be provided and maintained within a tolerance of 3mm by means of distance pieces of cement mortar or other approved materials.

(g) The vertical distances required between successive layers of bars in beams of similar members shall be maintained by the provision of mild steel spacer bars inserted at such intervals that the main bars do not perceptibly sag between adjacent spacer bars. The number, size, form and position of each steel bar, tie link, stirrup or other member of the reinforcement shall be in exact position in accordance with the drawings. Nothing shall be allowed to interfere with the disposition of any member of the reinforcement and special precaution shall be taken that it is not only correctly placed, but made to keep its correct place during the placing and setting of the concrete.

(h) No materials whatsoever, other than wires ties, approved internal formwork spacers, and purpose-made concrete blocks used to hold the reinforcing bars in position, shall be incorporated in the finished work. The position of the spacers and their method of use shall be approved by the S.O.. No concrete or steel in reinforced concrete work shall be cut in any way except by permission in writing from the S.O..

(i) The length of lap joints shall not be less than forty times the diameter of the steel member. Hooks shall have a diameter of curvature of at least four times the diameter of the member and shall be bent to a semi-circular form with a straight end measuring four times the diameter of the member. All free ends of bars shall be hooked as above; all joints in the length of bars shall be at points of minimum stress

111 Fixing Fabric Reinforcement

(a) Fabric Reinforcement shall be securely and accurately tied and fixed in position in accordance with the general requirements for fixing bar reinforcement.

(b) All fabric shall be "lapped" and the minimum lap be allowed in the case of rectangular mesh fabric shall be:-
450mm overlap of the longitudinal wires,
75mm overlap of the transverse wires.

(c) With square mesh fabric the minimum lap allowed shall be:-
300mm overlap of the longitudinal wires
300mm overlap of the transverse wires.

(d) In all types of fabric the lap provided shall be sufficient to develop the full strength of the material.

(e) All waste arising out of cutting shall be allowed by the Contractor.

112 Protecting Reinforcement

Where the reinforcement is to remain exposed to the weather for some time a thick cement grout wash shall be applied to the bars and maintained by reapplication from time to time.

Shuttering

113 Formwork

Materials
(a) Formwork for concrete shall be rigidly constructed of approved material and shall be true to the shape and dimensions described on the working drawings. Timber shall be well-seasoned, free from loose knots and, except where otherwise approved, wrot on all faces. Faces in contact with concrete shall be free from adhering grout, projecting nails, splits or other defects.

(b) Timber used in the formwork shall be well-seasoned, free from loose knots and unless otherwise approved, wrought on all faces. Form face in contact with concrete shall be free from dirt, adhering grout, projecting nails, splits and other defects. Formwork not in use shall be cleaned, oiled and stored flat and well protected against gross changes of moisture. Design

(c) Any form fining used shall be appropriate to the surface finish required and subject to the approval of the S.O..

(d) If required, the Contractor shall submit the details of the design of the formwork and the supports for the approval of the S.O.. Notwithstanding the approval by the S.O., the strength and adequacy of the formwork and falsework shall remain the responsibility of the Contractor and/or his Professional Engineers.

Construction

(e) Formwork shall be constructed sufficiently rigid and tight to prevent loss of grout from the concrete at all stages of placing and compacting.

(f) Connections in formwork shall be either nailed, screwed bolted, clamped or otherwise secured. Ties that are anchored against the timber shall pass through a plate washer at least 50 x 50 mm in size and of sufficient thickness such that the load is transferred to the timber without any visible deflection or penetration into the timber. All holes left in the concrete shall be filled with mortar and finished to the approval of the S.O.. Wire ties passing through the concrete may be used only when approved and the ends of the wire shall be concealed and measures taken to prevent rust stains on the concrete.

(g) Formwork shall be true to line and braced and strutted to prevent deformation under the weight and pressure of the wet concrete, construction loads, wind, and other forces. The defection shall not exceed 3mm. If so instructed the calculations and designs for the shuttering shall be submitted for approval before construction. Particular attention must be paid to the shutter supports and braces to avoid any slip when the concrete is poured. In the event of movement or deflection of the formwork the Contractor shall, if so required by the Supervising Officer, cut out and replace the concrete supported by such formwork at his own expense.

(h) The arrangement of formwork shall be such that it can be dismantled and removed readily from the cast concrete without causing shock, disturbance or damage. For beams and slabs the arrangement shall be such that the formwork and supports for the slab soffits and beam sides can be removed without disturbing the formwork and supports of the beam soffits.

(i) Supports of an upper floor shall rest on the lower floor only if the lower floor has developed adequate strength to bear the load. If in the opinion of the S.O., the lower floor does not have the required strength to carry the support of the upper floors, then the method adopted to support the formwork of the upper floor shall have to be approved by the S.O..

(j) Formwork across structure joints shall be erected such that it overlaps adjoining finished concrete by at least 150 mm and held tightly to it. Formwork shall run continuously across construction joints.

(k) Anchor bolts to be permanently installed in concrete, fixing, boxouts, cores and other devices used for forming openings, holes, pockets, recesses and other cavities shall be fixed firmly to the formwork. These fixings shall be as rigid as the formwork itself so as to prevent the leakage of any grout. No holes shall be cut in cast concrete except with the approval of the S.O.. If the Contractor fails to provide for any box out, hole or opening which he may reasonably be expected to anticipate from the drawing and if the S.O. considers that cutting the concrete to provide such opening may impair the strength of the member then the Contractor shall at his expense adopt any other method which the S.O. may deem fit to provide for such opening.

(l)If the formwork for a column is erected to the full height of the column, one side shall be left open and shall be built up in sections as placing the concrete proceeds.

(m) Formwork in walls and elsewhere shall be arranged for a maximum concreting height of 1.5m in a single pour. Where necessary panel openings are to be provided in the shutters for cleaning and inspecting the formwork, the access of vibrators and such panels shall be designed for closing and sealing as the concrete is poured.

(n) All rubbish, chippings, shavings etc. shall be removed from the interior of formwork immediately before concrete is placed, first by compressed air and then by a jet of water. Temporary openings shall be formed for the inspection of the inside of the formwork and for the escape of water used for washing. The Contractor may use an approved form oil which is compatible with the required finish to coat the faces of the formwork in contact with the concrete. Such oils shall be insoluble in water, non-staining, not injurious to the concrete and shall not become flaky or be removed by rain or wash water. Diesel oil and liquids which retard the setting of the concrete shall not be used. The same approved type of form oil shall be used throughout all works. The application of the form oil shall be such that no reinforcement or prestressing tendons shall be coated by the oil and there shall be no accumulation of the oil at the bottom of the formwork.

114 Removal of Formwork

(a) Formwork supporting cast-in-situ concrete shall not be removed unless:
(i) such removal will not result in unacceptable deflections due to shrinkage, creep, etc.
(ii) such removal has been accounted for in the sequence of construction which has been previously agreed upon between the Contractor and the S.O.
(iii) the cube strength of the cast concrete is 10 N/mm2 or twice the stress to which it will then be subjected, whichever is higher

(b) In the absence of the cube test result and stress calculations, the minimum periods before striking of the formwork for ordinary Portland cement concrete, as given in Table 114.1 below, may be accepted by the S.O. provided that:
(i) the requirements of the preceeding paragraph's subclause (i) and (ii) are satisfied;
(ii) the Contractor accepts the responsibility for the strength of the concrete as required by a(iii). Table 114.1: MINIMUM PERIOD FOR STRIKING FORMWORK

Location
Minimum Period For Ordinary Portland Cement Concrete
Sides of columns, walls and beams
1 day
Soffits of slabs (props left under)
3 days
Soffits of beams (props left under)
7 days
Props to slabs
7 days
Props to beam
14 days

(c) In any event, no formwork or support shall be struck or removed without the S.O.'s consent in writing. Striking or removal of formwork shall be done only in the presence of the S.O.'s representative at site.

(d) All formwork shall be removed without damage to the concrete. The Contractor shall be responsible for any injury to the work and any consequential damage caused by or arising from the method adopted for the striking or moving of the formwork or supports.

(e) Immediately after the removal of the formwork, it is the Contractor's responsibility to notify the S.O. for inspection and any remedial treatment required by the S.O. shall be carried out without delay. Any remedial treatment which has been carried out before the S.O.'s inspection and approval shall render the member liable for rejection.

(f) If the Contractor has been permitted to use Rapid Hardening Portland Cement other than where specified, in order to expedite, for his own advantage, the progress of the Works, it shall be understood that notwithstanding the advantage in time which is gained by the earlier stripping of formwork, no extra payments shall be made by the Board for the use of these alternative cements.

115 Boxing or Cutting Out

(a) Holes are to be boxed or cut out in the walls or slabs for cables, ducts, pipes, ragbolts etc., in the exact location, shape and dimensions required and approved.

(b) Boxed out holes shall be of adequate size to allow the building in of the pipe etc., and the proper sealing, grouting or concreting to make good. The shuttering to the boxing shall be shaped to form rebates or keys on all sides and the openings formed shall be sloped to the upper edge so that a concrete header may be formed for concreting in.

(c) Full details of the proposed method and location of all boxings, or cut out holes shall be submitted for the approval of the S.O. well before any formwork is erected and the S.O. may require any change in method or dimension necessary to solidly build in and incorporate the pipes etc.

116 Building and Grouting In

(a) Bolts and other small fixings shall be carefully grouted in with a cement sand grout in such a manner that there shall be no difference in colour and texture from the adjoining surfaces.

(b) Pipes and larger members to be built into concrete walls shall be carefully and neatly shuttered and concrete of the same class, colour and texture cast and compacted around.

(c) Items built into brickwork and other materials shall be neatly fixed and the material cut and pointed around the pipe etc.

(d) In all cases especially water retaining structures the building in shall be solid and absolutely watertight. In the event of leakage the Contractor may be required to completely cut out and remove the whole of the building in material and replace the building or grouting in material.

117 Bonding Ties

Ends of brickwall or hollow block wall shall be bonded to abutting reinforced concrete wall or column with 6 mm diameter mild steel bonding ties spaced at 450 mm centre to centre. The bonding ties used shall be at least 450 mm long with half the length to be effectively anchored in the concrete wall or column, and the other half to be built into the brickwork or hollow block work.

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Brickwork, Plaster and Tiling


118 Brickwork

(a) Each brick after being immersed in water shall be laid in full and close joints on cement in its bed, ends and sides in one operation, each course being subsequently flushed and finished solid without injury to the external faces of the work.

(b)Bed and vertical joints of brickworks are to be filled solid with mortar and no vertical joints shall be allowed to be flushed up from the top, but each joint must be filled up as the bricks are laid. All work found not to comply strictly with this requirement shall be taken down and rebuilt.

(c) Vertical joints in alternative courses shall be maintained in vertical lines. No work shall be carried up to a height greater than 1 metre above the level of adjacent work.

(d) The height of four courses of bricks laid in mortar shall not exceed by more than 25mm the height of the same bricks laid dry and generally the height of four courses shall be 300mm.

(e) Where the work is curved on plan, the bricks shall be cropped when necessary to ensure that they break joint correctly.

119 Mortar

(a) The mortar shall be carefully mixed upon properly constructed timber platforms and prepared in small quantities as required. The sand and cement shall be measured by volume in specially prepared and approved gauge boxes, one for each material size internally 0.03m3 and thoroughly mixed dry, the mixture shall then be wetted by pouring water upon it through a watering can rose and again mixed by turning over three times. Care should be taken to make the mixture of the right consistency. No mortar which has commenced to set may be used or mixed with any other mortar.

b) Mortar shall be (1:6) and shall mean mortar in the proportion of 50kg Portland Cement to 0.2m3 of sand mixed with an approved mortar plasticiser used strictly in accordance with the manufacturers' instructions.

120 Setting Out

The Contractor shall provide proper setting out rods and set out the same all work showing openings, heights, sills and lintels and shall build the various walls and piers to the thicknesses, widths and heights, shown upon the drawings. No part of the walling shall be carried up more than 0.9 metre higher at one time than any other part and in such cases the jointing shall be made in long steps not toothed so as to prevent cracks arising and all walls shall be levelled around at floors and wall heads. All must be built in level courses, no four courses or brickwork to rise more than 300mm.

121 Bonding Brickwork

(a) All 112.5mm walls throughout the work shall be built entirely in stretcher bond and shall be laid so that there is always a lap of one brick over another of half a brick. All 225mm walls and over throughout the works shall be built in English Bond in the best approved manner. All piers and intersections and angles of walls shall be properly bonded together. All must be built in level courses, no four courses to rise more than 300mm.

(b) All perpends, reveals, quoins and other angles of the walls etc. shall be built strictly true and square. No broken bricks or bats shall be used except where closers are required at quoins, jambs, etc., to make bond.

122 Reinforced Brickwork

All 112.5mm thick walling to be reinforced with a layer of approved brickwork reinforcement at every fourth course, the bottom-most reinforcement being 150mm above floor or foundation level. The reinforcement shall be lapped 150mm at all joinings and carried through the full thickness of the end wall at corners and junctions. Where 112.5mm thick walling bonds with 225mm thick walling the reinforcement shall pass through the 225mm thick walling. All 112.5mm thick brick walling of large area shall have 225mm thick piers at intervals approved by the S.O. and such piers shall be bonded to the walling by means of brickwork reinforcement.

123 Pointing

(a) Brickwork faces for rendering shall be finished with the joints raked out to a depth of 10mm while the mortar is green.

(b) Fair faced and Engineering brickwork shall be neatly pointed in cement mortar with a neat flat joint as the work proceeds.

(c) Facing brickwork to buildings shall be raked out as the work proceeds and on completion of the bricklaying, the whole of the work shall be neatly weather pointed. Where required by the S.O., the brickwork pointing shall be carried out in approved coloured cement mortar (normally cream).

124 Block Wall

Internal and protected partition walls may be constructed of precast block walls of concrete or breeze. The blocks shall be of an approved size, material, type and manufacture and they shall be laid in cement mortar generally in accordance with the requirements for brickwork.

125 Putlog Holes

All putlog holes shall be carefully, properly and completely filled up on completion of walling work and before any plastering is commenced.

126 Defective Work

Any defective bricks and blocks found in the work after completion shall be cut and replaced by sound ones at the Contractor's own expense.

127 Mortice, Hole, Chase, Etc;

Mortices, recesses, holes, chases, grooves, etc., as and when required for bolts, pipes, bearers, outlets, skirtings, etc., shall be neatly formed or cut out. Such mortices, recesses etc., shall be formed in straight lines and neat shapes accurately positioned.
Generally disturbed surfaces shall be made good where necessary in cement mortar to match the surrounding surfaces to the satisfaction of the S.O..

128 Damp Proof Course

To all ground floor walls built off concrete floors and beams or foundations, to provide three-ply bituminous felt damp proof course to B.S.743, Type 5B, roll lapped 150mm at joints and inter-sections, free from tears or holes, laid on a bed of cement mortar for the full thickness of the walls and bedded in and coated on the upper surfaces with liquid bitumen. All walls shall be carefully cleaned and well wetted before the cement bed is laid.

129 Preparation of surface for Rendering and Screeding

(a) All surfaces to be rendered or screeded must be brushed clean and well wetted before each coat is applied. All Portland cement plaster shall be kept continually damp in the interval between application of coats and for seven days after application of the final coat.

(b) The edges of surfaces adjoining new rendering or screening shall be cut back and under cut to a straight line.

130 Cement Mortar Rendering

The cement and sand shall be mixed on clean boards in a sheltered place or in a batch mixer and shall consist of one part of cement to six parts of sand mixed with an approved mortar plasticiser used strictly in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

131 Waterproof Cement Mortar Rendering

(a) The waterproof cement and sand rendering shall be composed of one part of cement to three parts of sand by volume, mixed with "Sika" or other equal and approved waterproofing material used in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

(b) The waterproof cement mortar rendering shall be applied in two coats and shall be carried out in the manner described for ordinary cement mortar rendering.

132 Shanghai Plaster

(a) Shanghai plaster shall be two coat work to a total thickness of 20mm.

(b) The undercoat shall be 10mm thick composed of sand and cement in the proportions of two parts of sand to one part Portland Cement, floated on to the brickwork and well scratched to form a key for the finishing coat.

(c) The finishing coat shall be 10mm thick and shall consist of one part Portland Cement to two parts of approved clean crushed evenly graded granite, all to pass a 6mm gauge screen. Before the surface has hardened, it shall be well scrubbed with wire or fibre brushes to evenly expose the aggregate and well rinsed off with clean water.

(d) The plaster shall be formed into "V" jointed panels of approximately 2m2 and the side walls of 1m2 all designed and set out to form a symmetrical panel arrangements to the approval of the S.O..

133 Floor Tiling Screed

Floor screeds shall be formed in cement mortar carefully tamped and screed between firmly fixed battens and afterwards floated and keyed. The screed shall be laid to slight falls for drainage purposes. After the screeds have set, the battens shall be removed and the resulting rebate made good in cement mortar.

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Pipe Conduit Drain


134 Setting Out

(a) Excavation for trenches shall be to straight lines and gradients required for the pipes and beds as specified. The trench bottom shall be of sufficient width to allow adequate working space for the pipe layers and jointers but beyond these requirements the widths must be kept to a minimum.

(b) Before any work commences, the pipe conduit trace shall be set out. The manhole centres shall be marked by a centre peg whose location shall be tied to 3 pegs situated outside the working space.

(c) Sight rails shall be set up painted black and white to mark the centre line of the pipe conduit, and boning rods shall be used to give the distance from the sight rails to the invert of the pipe conduit. It is desirable that no fewer than 3 site rails be set up on each line so that if one is disturbed it would be obvious. The maximum distance between sight rails should be 25 metres.

(d) The Contractor shall maintain the setting out of the line of the pipelines not less than 500 metres in advance of pipelaying and shall carry out such exploratory excavation as may be required by the S.O..

(e) For the lengths of the pipelines which are curved in plan or in elevation the curve shall be obtained by deflecting the pipes at each joint. No work shall be carried out by the Contractor till the detailed proposals are approved by the S.O..

(f) Strongly constructed, clearly painted boning rods shall be provided at each length where work is in progress. Such boning rods shall be designed to show the pipeline invert level below the site rails.

(g) When excavation is complete and before any further work commences wooden pegs are to be driven into the formation at not more than 5 metre centres the level of each peg being adjusted to the proposed pipe conduit invert by the use of the sight rails and boning rods.

(h) Before any permanent work may commence, the setting out shall be checked and approved by the S.O. or his representative.

135 Pipe Bedding with Granular Material

(a) The bedding for the pipes shall be thoroughly compacted. The pipes shall be laid evenly on the barrel at the required level. There should be no hollows, voids or foreign material under the pipe. Any concrete blocks or wedges should be removed on completion of bedding. The bedding should be completed to the correct profile according to the contract specification and drawings.

(b) The bedding should, at all stages of the construction be well compacted. Water shall be added to the granular material as laid to obtain an optimum moisture content for compaction, and sufficient mechanical tampers, vibrators or other approved method of compaction shall be employed at all times.

(c) Particular care must be taken to ensure that proper bedding is obtained at and on either side of the pipe joints. Where pipe jointing holes are left in the bedding, particular care must be taken to ensure complete and proper filling of the holes after pipe testing.

136 Concrete Bed, Haunching and Surround to Pipe

(a) The concrete bed foundation and Type Section for the pipes shall consist of a concrete or reinforced concrete according to the contract specification and drawings.

(b) In all cases the concrete shall be well rammed or vibrated and worked under and around the pipes. No concrete shall be placed around the pipes until the pipe joints have been inspected and approved.

(c) At approximately every four pipes or 6 metres, whichever is the lesser interval, the Contractor shall form a joint in the concrete bed or surround by vertically shuttering the bed or surround with 25mm thick fibreboard, timber or other approved material. The shuttering material shall be left in to form a permanent joint. Where the concrete bed is required to be reinforced, all reinforcement shall stop on either side of the joint.

137 Handling Pipe

At every point of loading or unloading, pipes or castings must be handled by approved lifting tackle. Unloading by rolling down planks or any other form of inclined ramp will not be allowed unless the written consent of the S.O. to the method proposed has been obtained. Pipes are to be carefully stacked on site with timber packings under and between the pipes. Where pipes are stacked, the height shall not exceed 2m.

138 Pipelaying

(a) All pipes shall be carefully brushed out inside and shall be tested for soundness before being laid. The pipes shall be laid separately to true inverts, straight lines and falls, each pipes being separately boned between sight rails and bearing evenly upon the solid ground or concrete for its full length.

(b) Where pipes are laid without a concrete bed, holes shall be cut in the bottom of the trench of such size and depth as to allow the joints to be properly made and the barrel of the pipe to bear evenly on the solid ground for its full length.

(c) Where pipes are to be laid on rock formation, the excavation shall be taken down to 100mm below bed level and great care shall be taken to ensure that there are no projecting pieces of rock on which the pipe will ride. The bed will then be made up to its true line and level by re-filling with either 100mm of consolidated, selected material from the excavations, well rammed, and watered if necessary or with 100mm of Grade 15 concrete as directed by the S.O.. Blocks and wedges shall then be left undistributed while the pipes are being jointed and the concrete surround is being placed in position.

(d) Where pipes are supported on granular materials, the Contractor shall include for providing timber blocks and wedgers for the fine adjustment of the pipes to line and level. The wedges and blocks shall be removed before completion the bedding.

(e) The Contractor shall be responsible for ensuring that all blocks and wedgers are of sufficient size and strength to prevent settlement of the pipes.

(f) The excavation of the bottom 150mm of the trench and laying of screed or any other surface preparation shall be immediately in advance of pipe-laying but no pipes shall be laid until a distance of at least 10m along the trench has been prepared and bottomed up to receive the pipes, unless specially permitted otherwise by the S.O.. The trenches and joints holes shall be kept free from water until the pipes are laid, jointed and surrounded with concrete. No water from the trenches shall be allow to enter the new pipes and no re-filling of trenches will be allowed until the joints of the pipes have been tested, inspected and approved. Properly fitted stoppers shall be provided and constantly used to close the ends of all uncompleted pipe lines. The stoppers are only to be removed when necessary. The pipelines shall not in any circumstances be covered until they have been inspected, tested, passed and approved by the S.O..

139 Jointing Concrete Pipe

Each concrete pipe with rebated joint well positioned shall be pushed home into the previously laid pipe by means of uniformly applied pressure. Jointing shall then be carried out by filling the opening at joint with cement mortar and finished off flush.

140 Cement Mortar

(a) Mortar for jointing pipes and precast concrete units shall be gauged in the proportions of one part of cement to three parts of sand.

(b) Cement mortar shall be mixed in small quantities sufficient only for 30 minutes work and shall not be remixed or worked up again after setting or hardening; any mortar that has become set or hard shall be rejected and removed from the works.

141 Fracture of Pipe

(a) In the event of pipes being fractured after being to all appearances properly laid whether due to imperfect beds having been formed or the material for refilling having been improperly selected or to any other cause, the Contractor in every instance, will be held responsible and he will be called upon to replace such defective pipes at his own cost, if such defect appears before the expiration of the D.L.P..

(b) Any pipe or length of pipes found to be defective shall be immediately removed and replaced at the Contractor's expense and leaking joints shall be remade.

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Painting


142 Painting Generally

(a) Materials Generally
All paints required for the works shall be delivered to the site of the works, ready mixed in the manufacturer's containers with the seals, etc. unbroken and shall be clearly marked with the manufacturer's name or trademark and a description of the contents and colour and carry a PSB mark. All materials delivered shall be kept on the site of the works under lock and key by the Contractor and shall not be kept in a place under adverse temperature. The whole of the paints, enamel, emulsion, varnishes, etc. used in the works must be suitable for use in tropical climates and shall be selected from the products of the manufacturers on the approved lists. The Contractor may ascertain from the S.O. the names of such approved manufacturers. The names of other brands may be submitted but preference will be given to locally manufactured paints. Such paints shall be subject to approval and tests in accordance with S.S.5 before use is permitted.
Should the Contractor wish to change the brand of paint under a circumstance beyond his control, the Contractor shall seek approval from the S.O. two weeks before the commencement of the painting. All materials for multiple coat work, e.g. priming, undercoat and finishing coat shall be obtained from the same manufacturer and shall be those recommended by the manufacturer as suitable for using together and for the surface concerned. All paints unless otherwise described shall comply with the relevant Singapore Standards.

(b) Health Precautions
During the execution of painting works, the Contractor shall be held responsible for taking all precautions necessary for the health and safety of his workmen. The Contractor shall comply with the statutory rules affecting the trades engaged in this work which operate at the time and at the site during execution of the work.

(c) Painter
None other than skilled painter shall be employed except apprentices and labourers. A properly qualified foreman shall be constantly on the job whilst the work is proceeding. He shall be regarded as an authorised person to represent the Contractor to deliver sample of paint to PSB for testing and he must be available whenever his service is needed.

(d) Scaffolding
All necessary scaffolding, stagings, tools and appliances and everything else required for the execution of the works shall be supplied by the Contractor and their costs allowed for in the Preliminaries.

(e) Dust Sheets
An ample supply of clean dust sheets to protect the work during its progress shall be at hand.

(f) Joint Painting guarantee
Before the painting work commences, the Contractor shall furnish a joint written guarantee (in a form supplied by the S.O.) duly completed and shall be delivered to the S.O..

(g) Primers
All primers shall be appropriate for the surface and for the subsequent coats. All primers shall be applied by brush. Subsequent coats may be applied by brush, spray or roller unless specifically directed. No roller shall be used for oil paints unless approved by the S.O..

(h) Primed Surfaces
Primed or undercoated woodwork, metalwork, plasterwork, etc. shall not be left in an exposed or unsuitable situation for an undue period before completing the painting process.

(i) Application
Each coat of paint shall be allowed to harden before the next is applied. Subsequent coats shall be applied within the period specifically specified by the paint manufacturer where necessary to secure a proper bond with the previous coat.
No paint shall be applied to surfaces structurally or superficially damp (unless otherwise specially recommended by manufacturer), or extremely hot and all surfaces must be ascertained to be free from condensation, dirt, dust, etc. before the application of each coat.
The Contractor shall bring to the attention of the S.O. for structurally damp surfaces before painting work commences.

(j) Mixing All paints shall be thoroughly mixed before use, unless there is a specific instruction to the contrary on the tin e.g. 'do not stir'. All partially used paint containers shall always be properly resealed and properly stored away from adverse temperature.

(k) Thinning
Paints shall not be thinned without specific approval but when necessary, thinning shall be carried out with the type of thinner and in the proportions recommended by the manufacturers of the paint.

(l) Adverse Weather No exterior or exposed painting shall be carried out under adverse weather condition such as extremes of temperature or during rain.

(m) Inspection
No priming coats shall be applied until the surfaces have been inspected and the preparatory work has been approved by the S.O.. No undercoats or finishing coats shall be applied until the previous coat has been similarly inspected and approved.

(n) Differentiation of Coats
No consecutive coats of paint shall be of the same shade except in the case of white. Where doubt exists appropriate alternative shades shall be ascertained from manufacturer.

(o) Colour and Trial Areas
All colours and finishes shall be selected or approved by the S.O. and provision must be made for the execution of patterns or trial areas on the site if required.

(p) Samples Unless specifically directed, manufacturer's samples of all paints, varnishes, etc. shall be submitted, at the Contractor's expense, in scaled containers to the S.O. for his approval before bulk deliveries are made and before any paintwork is started.
During the execution of the work, further samples of all or any of the materials shall be taken by the S.O. as he desires and the Contractor shall provide the containers with necessary seals and all samples at his own expense. The samples shall be taken from the sealed or open containers or from the workmen's kettles on the works at random and at varying times of the day while painting is in progress and in the presence of the Contractor's representative. The sample may also be taken by scraping or chipping off the actual paintwork from the site. The samples shall then be sent to approved laboratory for testing. The samples, from the time they are taken till delivery to approved laboratory, should be jointly and continuously accompanied by the S.O. and the Contractor. Under no circumstances shall any kerosene or other oil be added to the paint. Any tins, drums. kegs or other containers marked with the name of brand of materials or manufacturers different from those which the S.O. has selected shall not be present on the site (even though such containers are being used as receptacles for brushes, as paint kettles, etc.). If any adulteration or substitution of inferior and poor quality of paint is found from the test, the Contractor shall burn off or otherwise remove and re-do the work as directed by the S.O. at the Contractor's expense. If the paint is found to be over-diluted or over-thinned and if it is accepted by the paint manufacturer that the quality is not seriously being affected, the Contractor shall re-do (without the need to remove the new paintwork) the work as directed by the S.O. at his own expense. The paint manufacturer shall also be given the same right to test paint samples. The Contractor shall pay for all testing fees charged by the approved laboratory if the test shows positively that the paint is adulterated or over-diluted. The Employer however, will bear the cost of testing if the paints used are up to the specified standard.
If the Contractor is found to persistently use sub-standard materials, administrative action may be taken against the Contractor by the Employer.

(q) Painting Schedule
A painting schedule shall be provided prior to the execution of the work to enable work to proceed at the appropriate time. The schedule shall give all the necessary information on colour, type of paint, surface to be coated and method of application.

(r) Workmanship Generally
All brushes, rollers, spraying equipment, tools, pots, kettles, etc. used in carrying out the work shall be clean and free from foreign matter and shall be thoroughly cleaned out before being used with a different type or class of materials. All metal fittings, fastenings and ironmongery shall be removed before the preparatory processes are commenced and cleansed and refixed in position on completion.
Before painting, varnishing, polishing, etc. are proceeded with, floors must be cleaned over and every possible precaution taken to keep down dust. Paints of different types shall not be permitted to be mixed together.
All internal paintwork shall have a gloss finish unless otherwise described and all external paintwork shall be of special quality suited for external use.
All surfaces shall be cleaned, dry and free from oil or grease. Paint shall not be applied to any surfaces upon which there is moisture or to any external surfaces during wet weather. Paint shall also not be applied on very hot surfaces.
Unless otherwise specifically stated, all materials shall be thoroughly stirred and mixed when the containers etc. are opened and when the contents are transferred to the painter's kettles. Where necessary, the paints shall be strained to remove all skin, etc. before application. Under no circumstances shall the addition of thinners or driers, of any kind, be permitted.
Under no circumstances shall rollers be used in the application of enamel paint.
Each coat of enamel paint shall be lightly rubbed down with fine glass paper before the next coat is applied. Under no circumstances shall any successive coat of paint be applied until the S.O.'s permission has been obtained.
The undercoat shall be 'flat' in all cases.

(s) Undercoat / Finishing Coat
In addition to priming and unless otherwise described, all iron and steelwork surfaces (including eaves gutters, rainwater, soil, waste and ventilating pipes) shall receive one undercoat and two finishing coats.

143 Painting Metal SurfacesM

Iron or Steel Surfaces
(a) Preparatory Work Millscale and tightly adhering rust on iron and steel surfaces shall be completely removed by closed circuit grit blasting or phosphoric acid washes or as specifically stated by the S.O. or in factory by acid pickling or blasting. Less serious rust and millscale may be removed by hand or power tools or by flame cleaning with oxyacetylene or butane gas followed by brushing. When using phosphoric acid washes, manufacturer's instruction shall be closely followed.
Oil or grease shall be removed by wiping over with white spirit and cleaned off with clean cloth. If in factory, an approved chemical solvent shall be used followed by thorough washing and drying.

(b) Priming
Two coats of approved primers conforming to S.S.6 shall be applied to the prepared surfaces of metal or iron work. Priming shall be done within 1 hour of preparation. The primers used shall be zinc-rich type, calcium plumbate, zinc chromate or other approved inhibitive primer as appropriate for the metal surface or as specifically directed by the S.O..

(c) Undercoat / Finishing Coat
In addition to priming and unless otherwise described, all iron and steelwork surfaces (including eaves gutters, rainwater, soil, waste and ventilating pipes) shall receive one undercoat and two finishing coats after fixing. Primed surface if damaged during handling, transporting and assembling shall be touched up with appropriate primer and the edge rubbed down with clean dry cloth. Coated pipes shall be knotted prior to painting. Eaves gutters and rainwater heads shall be painted inside and out.
Undercoat and finish type paint must be suited to primer coat as well as to the conditions of exposure.

(d) Application
Brush or spray applications are satisfactory on smooth and flat surfaces, but a brush shall be used on rough surface including frames, pipes, angles and the like. Paints shall never be applied to damp surfaces. Aluminium

(a) Surface Preparation
The base aluminium surface shall be prepared by abrading with fine wet or dry abrasive paper using white spirit as lubricant. The surfaces shall be wiped off with clean cloth soaked in white spirit and all residues removed with dry clean cloth.

(b) Primer
The prepared surface shall then be primed without excessive delay with an etch primer plus zinc chromate applying smooth even coats.

(c) Undercoats/ Finishing Coats
One undercoat and two finishing coats of approved paint shall be applied on the primed surface. Zinc/Galvanised/Stainless Steel Surface

(a) Surface Preparation
Zinc surface shall be weathered, washed down and degreased with white spirit.

(b) Primer
The Contractor shall ensure that all surfaces are etched, dried and primed immediately with two thin coats of zinc chromate or calcium plumbate on the prepared surface. For stainless steel surface, no primer is required after the surface is etched.

(c) Undercoat/ Finishing Coat
One undercoat and two finishing coats of approved paint shall be applied on primed surface.

Copper
(a) Surface Preparation
Copper surface shall be prepared by abrading with emery using white spirit as a lubricant. The surfaces should be wiped off with clean cloth soaked in white spirit and all resides removed with clean dry cloth.

(b) Primer
In exposed conditions, copper surface shall be primed with etch primer or aluminium pigmented primer. Internally, no primer may be needed.

(c) Undercoat/ Finishing Coat
One undercoat and two finishing coats of approved paint shall be applied on primed surface.

144 Painting Cement and Sand Plaster Surfaces

Cement and Sand Plaster

(a) Surface Preparation All plaster splashes and other surface contamination shall be removed. Cracks and surface defects shall be made good with the appropriate plaster. When set, all powdering residues shall be removed from the area surrounding the repair. All efflorescence shall be removed as and when it appears, until such action ceases. Adequate ventilation shall be maintained to assist drying.

(b) Primer
Before priming is applied, the wall must be allowed to have minimum 3 weeks drying out time.

(c) Paint System
Unless otherwise specified, all plastered surfaces shall either be painted with:

(i) One priming coat of cement paint and two subsequent coats of emulsion paint. The priming coat shall be freshly mixed on site and applied in accordance with the manufacturer's printed instructions. Unused paints more than 1 hour mixing shall be condemned.

(ii) One priming coat and two subsequent coats of emulsion paint. The priming coat may be diluted with not more than 20% of water by volume.

(ii) One alkaline resisting primer and two subsequent coats of emulsion paint.

Wall surfaces shall be cleaned and wetted immediately before painting. The Contractor shall allow at least 24 hours interval between coats. No dilution shall be permitted for the second and finishing coats of emulsion paint.

145 General Requirements

The painting works in this section shall be based on a performance specification. The recommended painting system shall be so designed that it meets the Department's performance criteria as specified herein.
The painting system shall be designed by an approved paint manufacturer. The successful Contractor shall arrange to obtain and furnish a guarantee from the approved paint manufacturer for the external painting works against algae and other biological growth, uneven fading/discolouring, peeling, blistering and/ or other decoration defects. The guarantee, to be submitted in an approved form, shall be executed by deed and shall be deposited with the Employer before the certification of the final payment. The guarantee period for all external painting works shall be 5 years from the date of certified completion of the external painting work. In addition to the guarantee, the Contractor shall be require to warrant himself for the performance of the external painting works using an approved form.
The external painting shall mean painting to all external surfaces except those within the enclosed walls of building and other enclosed spaces. All external doors, windows, shutters, grille gates and the like openable towards outside shall mean painting both sides including door edges and frames. The guarantee for external painting shall exclude perimeter chain link fencings, electrical and mechanical equipment and fittings, floors and roof surfaces and other areas as specifically mentioned in the Particular Specification. Any defects to these areas shall be made good during the defects liability period.
The Contractor shall arrange with the paint manufacturer to furnish a letter of intent in an approved form stating that the paint manufacturer intends to be his guarantor. The letter shall be submitted to the Tenders and Contracts Section of PUB together with the Contractor's tender documents.
The recommended painting system must be forwarded to the S.O. for approval 2 weeks before the commencement of painting works with the following details:

(i) Name of system
(ii) Number and type of coats
(iii) Composition
(iv) Use
(v) Characteristics
(vi) Colours available
(vii) Application method
(viii) Thinner
(ix) Thinning ratio - in percentage by volume
(x) Spreading rate - m 2 /litre
(xi) Type of primer
(xii) Thinning ratio of primer - in percentage by volume
(xiii) Spreading rate of primer - m 2 /litre
(xiv) Drying time of concrete before primer coat
(xv) Drying time of each coat (at 30ºC)
(xvi) Painting interval between coats
(xvii) Surface preparation method if it is different from the requirements specified herein.
The Contractor shall ensure by supervision, checks or any other means that all materials used conform to the intended specification and if any changes are necessary shall seek written approval from the S.O. with all the abovementioned details listed out.
In proposing the painting systems and products to be used for this Contract, the Contractor shall comply with all local fire and health requirements. In addition, he must ensure that all paints brought to site must be free from organomercury compounds. He shall be fully responsible for his painting systems used. The Contractor shall allow in his tender for different colour tones for all undercoats to distinguish the different coatings. Should the finished painting work be found unsatisfactory, i.e. brushy works, unevenness in applications, insufficient film thickness, original stains etc., the Contractor shall be required to scrape off the old paint and repaint with additional coat or coats at his own expense to the full satisfaction of the S.O..
The Contractor must rectify and make good all defects within 14 days of receipt of a written notice of any painting defects at his own costs and expenses, failing which the S.O. shall issue a similar notice to the paint manufacturer requiring them to rectify and make good the said defects within the next 14 days upon receipt of the written notice. If both the Contractor and the paint manufacturer fail to make good the said defects after the second 14 days period, the S.O. shall engage other persons or contractors to make good the said defects. All costs and expenses incurred thereof shall be recoverable from or payable by or deductible from monies due or monies which at any time thereafter may become due in respect of this Contract or any other contract, from the Contractor. If there is no outstanding monies left to offset against the Contractor's account to pay for the rectification works done by the other persons or contractors, the paint manufacturer (guarantor) shall reimburse the Department the cost so incurred by the Department.
Rectification work carried out by other persons or contractors in the event of the Contractor's failure to do so shall not vitiate or annul the guarantee.
The necessity and extent of making good and rectification of the defects of the painting works shall be determined by the S.O. whose decision thereon shall be final. The undertaking given by the Contractor shall be absolute and shall not be restricted to or limited by any inspection and approval of the quality of the paint and materials which the S.O. may make.
Materials and Workmanship Requirement

(a) Surface Preparation
The Contractor must ensure that surface preparation specification is adequate and compatible with the designed painting specification as any failure of the painting system due to inadequate surface preparation or preparation specification must be rectified at the Contractor's expense. No exemption from the guarantee and/or warranty will be allowed for poor surface preparation.
All surface preparatory work shall comply with Clause 143 and Clause 144.

(b) Surface Application
Application method may be by brush, roller, spray or airless spray as recommended by the paint manufacturer. No roller shall be used on rough surface, framework and the like.
Unless otherwise specified, the paints used for external surfaces shall be solvent thinned paint. Use of higher quality paint such as chlorinated rubber bound or the two-pack polyurethane and epoxy resin bound shall be used in aggressive condition if it is recommended by the paint manufacturer. All materials used shall be of the type approved by the S.O..
Application shall be in accordance with manufacturer's specification. A minimum of one primer coat, one undercoat and one finishing coat of a painting system is required for plasterboard, cement building board and the like surfaces. For timber and metal surfaces. the painting system shall comprise one primer, one undercoat and two finishing coats. Etch primer shall be used on all galvanised, stainless steel and non-ferrous metal surfaces.
All surfaces shall be clean, dry and free from oil or other deleterious matters. Paint shall not be applied to any surface which is very hot and upon which there is moisture or to any external surface during adverse weather condition such as extreme of temperature or during rain.
The finished surface shall be uniform in sheen, colour etc. and be free from defects detrimental to appearance or performance.
The Contractor's attention is brought to the fact that although a guarantee for the painting system is specified in the Contract, samples of the paints may be taken for test as specified in Clause 142 (p) throughout the duration of works by tile S.O. to ensure that the specified paints are used and no adulteration or over dilution takes place.

Completion
On completion and before handing over the works, the Contractor shall touch up and make good all damaged and defective surfaces, clean all glass on both sides, wash off all paint droppings and stains from floors, walls and other surfaces. The Contractor shall clear away all debris and superfluous materials to the entire satisfaction of the S.O..

Top

Road

The clauses contained herewith under "ROAD" shall serve as a guide only. Land Transport Authority's latest requirements and standards shall take precedence over the clauses contained herewith.

146 Excavation to Formation

(a) Excavation and filling shall be carried out to this specification and the sections, lines, grades, crossfalls, etc., shown on the Drawings. All suitable material taken from excavation shall be used as fill to the extent required to construct embankments or subgrade.

(b) Excavation shall be carried to such a depth that sufficient material remains above the designated subgrade to allow for compaction. On the embankments sufficient material shall be placed above the designated subgrade to allow for compaction and settlement. All topsoil shall be removed to a depth of 150mm or as directed, and shall be sued on the turfed areas of the site or carted away.

147 Preparation of Sub-Grade

On areas to be paved, the specified depths in cut areas and fill areas shall be compacted to meet the requirements for field density as follows:
All materials shall be compacted in layers as soon as practicable after deposition. Before commencing any filling, each class of material to be compacted shall be tested by an acceptable laboratory to establish the maximum value of the dry density that can be obtained and the optimum moisture content for compaction. Testing shall be in accordance with B.S.1377 test no.13.
Table 147 may be used as a guide in establishing appropriate in-situ compaction methods. The depth of each compacted layer shall be compatible with the compaction plant used and shall not be greater than the maximum depth of compacted later specified for each type of compaction plant. Earthmoving plant will not be accepted as compaction equipment. Variations from the methods given in this table, or the use of plant not included therein, will be permitted only if the Contractor demonstrates to the satisfaction of the S.O. at site trials that the required field density will be achieved. Table 147 Compaction Requirements for Granular and
Cement-Bound Granular Materials

Type of Compaction Plant Category Number Of Passes
    Not greater than 100mm
per layer
Not greater than 150mm
per layer
Not greater than 225mm
; per layer
Smooth
Wheeled roller
Force per
100mm width
     
  2.6KN
5.2KN
more than 5.2KN
16
8
Unsuitable
16
Unsuitable
Unsuitable
Pueumatic-tyred roller Wheel Load
Tonnes
4 - 6
6 - 8
8 - 12
more than 12
12
12
10
8
Unsuitable
Unsuitable
16
12
Unsuitable
Unsuitable
Unsuitable
Unsuitable
Vibratory
Roller
Static
force per 100mm
width of vibratory roller
16
6
4
3
3
2
2
Unsuitable
16
6
5
5
4
4
Unsuitable
Unsuitable
10
9
8
7
6
KN
0.70 - 1.25
1.26 - 1.75
1.76 - 2.30
2.31 - 2.80
2.81 - 3.50
3.51 - 4.20
4.21 - 4.90
     
Vibrating-Plate
compactor
Static
pressure under
base plate
8
5
3
Unsuitable
8
6
Unsuitable
Unsuitable
10
KPa
13.8 - 17.2
17.3 - 20.7
more than 20.7
Vibro-Temper Mass 4
3
2
8
6
4
Unsuitable
10
12
Kg
50 - 65
66 - 75
more than 75
Power
rammer or dropping
Weight compactor
Mass 5
5
8
8
Unsuitable
12
Kg
100 - 150
500

The method of compaction being used must produce a compacted fill material having a filed density of at least the following percentage of the maximum dry density previously established for that material. (95% in the case of material within 500mm of formation level, 90% in the case of material more than 500mm below formation level).
The Contractor must verify by site tests that the required field density is being achieved and make any adjustments to his compaction methods which may be necessary.
Notwithstanding compliance with Table 147, the Contractor must verify by site tests that the required field density is being achieved and make any adjustments to his compaction methods which may be necessary. Field density shall be determined by in-situ tests in accordance with B.S.1377 test no.15. Each layer of fill shall be tested and accepted by the S.O. prior to the placing of the next layer. In-situ field density tests shall be carried out in accordance with B.S.1377 test no. 15(A) - Sand Replacement Method or test no.15(F) - Water Displacement Method. The moisture content of the in-situ material during compaction shall be maintained as close to the optimum moisture content as possible. If necessary, this shall be adjusted by wetting or drying on site to enable the required in-situ field densities of the fill material to be obtained consistently.
When materials of widely divergent characteristics are used in embankments and fill areas they shall be spread and compacted in separate clearly defined areas in such a manner as to comply with the requirements of this clause. If more than one class of material is being used in such a way that is not practicable to define the areas in which each class occurs, compaction plant shall be operated as if only the material which requires the greatest compactive effort is being compacted.
The following requirements are applicable to Rock used as fill material. Each layer of Rock used as rock fill in embankments shall be spread and levelled and systematically compacted by at least 12 passes of a towed vibratory roller with a static load per metre width or roll of at least 1800 kg or a grid roller with a load per metre width of roll of at least 8000 kg or other approved plant. Where, however, the rock contains sufficient soft material for satisfactory compaction to the requirements of Table 147 for well-graded granular soil, the fill shall be compacted to such latter requirements. In order that the S.O. may make proper provision of compaction in the permanent work, the Contractor shall, not less than 24 hours before he proposes to carry out compaction processes during periods of overtime, apply in writing to the S.O. for permission to do so.
Table 147 gives requirements for compaction of soil mechanical plant. This table is to be read in accordance with the following definitions: a) The depth of compacted layer is the height by which an embankment is raised by each successive compacted layer.
b) The number of passes is the number of times that each point on the surface of the layer being compacted has been traversed by the compaction plant (or struck in the case of power rammers or dropping weight compactors). The effective width of a pneumatic-tyred roller, for this purpose, is the sum of the widths of the individual wheeltracks together with sum of the spacing between the wheeltracks provided that each spacing does not exceed 230mm. Where the spacing exceeds 230mm the effective width shall be taken as the sum of the widths of the individual wheeltracks only.
c) The force per 100mm width of roll is the total weight on the roller divided by the total roll width. Where a smooth-wheeled roller has more than one axle the machine shall be assessed on the basis of the axle giving the highest value of force per 100mm width.
Wheel load is the total weight of the roller divided by number of wheels. d) Tamping rollers are machines with a roll or rolls from which "feet" project. The projected end area of each "foot" shall exceed 0.01m2 and the sum of the areas of the feet shall exceed 15 per cent of the area of the cylinder swept by the ends of the feet. The requirements for tamping rollers apply to machines that have 2 rolls in tandem. If only one tamping roll traverses each point on the surface of the layer on any one pass of the machine, the minimum number of passes shall be twice the number given in Table 147.
e) Vibratory rollers are self propelled or towed rollers having means of applying mechanical vibration to one or more rolls.
The requirements for vibratory rollers are based on the use of the lowest gear on a self-propelled machine and a towing speed of 1800 - 2400 m/hr for a towed machine. If higher gears or speeds are used, an increased number of passes shall be provided in proportion to the increase in speed of travel. Where the mechanical vibration is applied to two rolls in tandem, the minimum number of passes shall be half the number given in Table 147 for the appropriate mass per metre width of one vibrating roll. If one roll differs in mass per metre width from the other the number of passes shall be calculated as for the roll with the smallest value. Alternatively the machine may be treated as having a single vibrating roll with a mass per meter width equal to that of the roll with the higher value.
Vibratory type rollers operating without vibration will be classified as smooth wheeled rollers.
Vibratory rollers shall only be operated with their vibration mechanism operating at the frequency of vibration recommended by the manufacturers. All such rollers shall be equipped with a device automatically indicating the frequency at which the mechanism is operating.
f) Vibrating-plate compactors are machines having a base plate to which is attached a source of vibration consisting of one or two eccentrically weighted shafts.
The static pressure under the plate of a vibrating-plate compactor is calculated by dividing the total weight of the machine in working order by the area in contact with compacted material.
Vibrating-plate compactors shall be operated at the frequency of vibration recommended by the manufacturer. They shall normally be operated at travelling speeds of less than 900m/hr but, if higher speeds are necessary, the number of passes shall be increased in proportion to the increase in speed of travel.
g) Vibro-tampers are machines in which an engine-driven reciprocating mechanism acts on a spring system, through which oscillations are set up in a base plate.
h) Power rammers are machines which are actuated by explosions in an internal combustion cylinder, each explosion being controlled manually by the operator.
In the case of power rammers and dropping weight compactors one pass will be considered as made when the compacting, shoe has made contiguous strikes on the whole of the area to be compacted.
i) For items marked with an asterisk (*), the rollers shall be towed by track-laying tractors. Self-propelled rollers are unsuitable.
j) Where combination of different types of categories of plant are used, the compaction requirements shall be:

(i) The depth of layer shall be that for the type of plant requiring the least depth of layer
(ii) The number of passes shall be that for the type of plant requiring the greatest number of passes
However, where the Contractor uses a light type of plant to provide some preliminary compaction only to assist the use of heavier plant, this shall be disregarded in assessing the above requirements.
When completed the surface shall be true to the ones, grades and cross-section shown on the drawings. Any irregularities or depressions that develop under rolling shall be corrected by loosening the material until the surface is smooth and uniform. Any portion of the area, which is not accessible to a roller, shall be compacted to the required density by approved mechanical tampers.
All soft and yielding material and material which will not be compacted readily when rolled or tamped shall be removed as directed by the S.O. and replaced with suitable material. After grading operations are completed, all loose stones larger than 50mm in their greatest dimension shall be removed from the surface of all proposed graded paving areas and disposed of. Protection of the top subgrade

At all times, the top of the subgrade shall be kept in such condition that it will drain readily and effectively. The Contractor shall take all necessary precautions to protect the subgrade from damage. He shall limit hauling over the finished subgrade to that which is essential for construction purposes. If ruts are formed the subgrade shall be reshaped and rolled. Storage or stockpiling of materials on the top of the subgrade will not be permitted. Until the subgrade had been checked and approved, no sub-base, base course or pavement shall be laid thereon.
Tolerances in subgrade levels

The levels of subgrade shall be determined from the true finished pavement surface calculated from vertical profile and crossfalls as shown on the drawings. The vertical depth below the true finished pavement surface of any point on the constructed surface of subgrade shall be within ± 25mm.

148 Kerb

Roadside kerbs are to be laid on all roads in accordance with Land Transport Authority. Precast concrete kerb shall be in accordance with B.B.340: 1950. They shall be laid to the lines and levels shown on the drawings and shall be jointed in cement mortar on a concrete bed (quality 1:2:4). Kerbs to curves where the radius is less than 15 metres shall be specially manufactured radius kerbs to exact dimensions. A 10mm expansion joint is to be formed at 30 metres intervals.
At the entrance to drives, the kerb is to be broken and a special kerb divider is to be laid at either end of the entrance as shown on the drawings.

149 Sub-Base and Base

General

The underlying course shall be checked before placing and spreading of sub-base or base is started. Any ruts or soft, yielding places due to improper drainage conditions, hauling or from any other causes shall be corrected and rolled to the required density before the sub-base or base is placed thereon.
To protect the underlying course and to ensure proper drainage, the spreading of the sub-base or base material shall begin along the centreline of the pavement on a crowned section or on the high side of pavements with a one-way slope.
Grade control between the edges of the pavement shall be accomplished by means of grade stakes, steel pins or forms placed in lines parallel to the centreline of the pavement at intervals sufficiently close that string lines or check boards may be placed between the stakes, pins or forms.
Tolerances in Surface Levels of Sub-Base and Base Courses
The level of sub-base and base courses shall be determined from the true pavement surface, which unless otherwise stated shall be the surface of wearing course of flexible pavement or of the slab for concrete pavement, calculated from the pavement vertical profile and cross-falls as shown on the drawings. The vertical depth below the true pavement surface of any point on the constructed surface of sub-base shall be within ± 15mm for base and ± 20mm for sub-base.
For checking compliance with the surface level tolerances, measurements of surface levels shall be taken at a grid of points at 30m centres longitudinally, 10m centre on curves and 3m centres transversely starting 1m from the edge of the pavement. In any length of pavement represented by the grid, compliance with the requirements is deemed to have been met when not more than one measurement in ten exceeds the tolerance permitted.
Surface Regularity
After the sub-base or base course has been completed, its surface shall be tested for trueness with a 3m long straight edge applied parallel with and at right angles to the centre line. The maximum deviation of the surface below the straight edge shall not exceed 10mm.

Rectification

Where any tolerance is exceeded, the Contractor shall determine the full extent of the area, which is out of tolerance and shall make good the surface of the pavement course. When the sub-base or base courses consist of unbound material, the top layer shall be scarified and reshaped with added materials as necessary and re-compacted all to this Specification or any other means of rectification as accepted by the S.O.. The area treated shall normally not be less than 30m long and 2m wide or such shorter length to be determined by the S.O. as necessary to obtain compliance with this Specification. Where the courses consist of cement treated material, except concrete slabs, the method of correction shall depend on the period, which has elapsed between detection of the error and the time of mixing of the material. If this is less than 2 hours, the surface shall be scarified to a depth of not less than 50mm, supplemented with freshly mixed material as necessary and re-compacted all to this Specification. If the period is 2 hours or more the full depth of the layer shall be removed from the pavement and replaced to Specification. In either case the area treated shall not be less than 5m long x 2m wide. For areas corrected within 7 days of laying, no construction traffic or compaction plant shall use the surrounding satisfactory areas. Sub-Base
Sub-base material shall be natural sand, crushed rock or crushed concrete or any other granular material accepted by the S.O.. The material shall be well graded and lie within the grading limits of the following table. The particle size shall be determined in accordance with B.S.1377.

B.S. Sieve Size % by Weight Passing
75 mm 100
37.5 mm 85-100
10 mm 45-100
5 mm 25-85
600 gm 8-45
75 gm 0-10

The material passing the 425 gm sieve, when tested in accordance with S.S.1377, shall have a plasticity index of less than 6. If more than 10% of the material is retained on the 20mm sieve, the whole material shall be assumed without test to have a CBR value of 30% or more. If 10% or less of the material is retained on the 20mm sieve, the fraction that passes that sieve shall satisfy the CBR requirements of 30% (soaked value) when tested by Test No. 15 of B.S.1377 using the dynamic compaction method 3 with a 4.5 kg rammer at the dry density and moisture content likely to be achieved in the field.
Milled waste which is asphaltic concrete machine milled from existing road, could be used as sub-base material subjected to S.O.'s approval. Grading and CBR tests are exempted for milled waste. However, 100% of the material shall pass the 63 mm sieve and the requirements for compaction shall be complied with.
Sub-base material shall be placed and spread evenly. Spreading shall be undertaken immediately after placing material on site. The materials shall be laid using a mechanical aggregate spreader. Other mechanical equipment which can level off material to an even depth may be used subject to the acceptance of the S.O.. The sub-base material under unreinforced concrete pavements with warping joints shall, when laid and compacted, provide a smooth close textured surface.
The sub-base material shall be compacted in layers of not more than 200 mm thick as soon as possible after deposition. The depth of each compacted layer shall be compatible with the compaction plant used. Each layer shall be tested and accepted by the S.O. prior to the placing of the next layer. The in-situ field density of the compacted layer expressed as a percentage of the maximum dry density determined in accordance with B.S.1377 Test No. 13 shall not be less than 95%. At least 3 in-situ field tests shall be made for every 500 m2 or less of surface area of each compacted layer. Any layer that failed to meet the density requirement represented by each in-situ field test shall be removed and replaced with suitable material.
Subject to S.O.'s acceptance, the in-situ field density may be determined with nuclear device in accordance with ASTM D2950. The maximum density to be used shall be the average density of 3 laboratory compacted specimens. The in-situ percentage level of compaction shall be taken with respect to this maximum density. However, in the event that the nuclear device shows an in-situ percentage level of compaction above 100%, the maximum density shall be modified for that particular test to reflect the in-situ maximum density e.g. if the compaction indicated on the nuclear device is 105%, the maximum density to be used shall be 1.05 times of the maximum density derived from the laboratory compacted specimens. If more than 3 tests show in-situ percentage level of compaction exceeding 100%, the maximum density shall again be determined in the laboratory.

The surface of any layer of material shall, on completion of compaction, be well closed, free from movement under compaction plant and from compaction planes, ridges, cracks or loose material. All loose/segregated or otherwise defective areas shall be made good to the full thickness of the layer and re-compacted.
Base
The base aggregate shall consist of graded crushed, clean and hard angular aggregate complying with the requirements of S.S.31 and conforming to the gradation shown below.

Aggregates B.S. Sieve Size % by Weight Passing
Coarse
Aggregate
50mm
37.5mrn
20mm
10mm
100
95-100
60-80
40-60
Fine
Aggregate
5mm
2.36mm
425gm
25-45
15-35
6-18
Mineral
Fitter
75gm 0-10

When used in a pavement which is to carry a bituminous surfacing, that portion of the soil-binder material (if any) which passes a 425gm sieve shall have the following properties:
Liquid Limit - not more than 25%
Plasticity Index - not more than 6%
Linear Shrinkage - not more than 3%
The sand equivalent of the material passing the 4.8mm sieve shall not be less than 30.
When used in a pavement which is not to carry a bituminous surfacing, the portion of the soil-binder material (if any) which passes a 425gm sieve shall have the following properties:
Liquid Limit - not more than 35%
Plasticity Index - between 4 and 9%
Linear Shrinkage - between 2 and 4%
The aggregates shall be mixed at a mixing plant by continuous mixing using a pug-mill mixer, or batch type mixing using a revolving blade, rotary pan, or rotary tilting drum mixer. The plant shall be in sound mechanical condition and shall consistently produce a uniform mixture of aggregates and water at optimum moisture content or at a moisture content as directed by the S.O.. To achieve the desired grading, the use of any sand, granite dust or approved filler such as laterite, the quality of such materials and the amount to be added into the mixing plant shall be subject to the acceptance of the S.O.. Water used for mixing shall be clean and substantially free from detrimental impurities such as oil, salts, acids, alkali and vegetable substance.
Plant-mixed material shall be transported directly to the point where it is to be laid, and shall be covered with canvas or other approved material to prevent loss of moisture during transit from the mixer to the laying site and whilst awaiting tipping. Transport vehicles shall be equipped with discharge devices that will enable the plant-mixed material to be discharged or loaded into the hoppers of spreading machines without spillage and in such a way that segregation will be minimised.
The material shall be deposited and spread in lanes in uniform layers of not more than 150 mm each layer without segregation of size to such loose depth that, when compacted, the thickness of the compacted layer shall not exceed 250mm. The base material shall be spread by an approved self-propelled mechanical spreader with an automatic tamping device.
After spreading, the base material shall be thoroughly compacted by rolling. The rolling shall progress gradually from the sides to the centre of the lane under construction, or from one side towards previously placed material by lapping uniformly each preceding rear wheel track by one-half the width of such track. Rolling shall continue until the entire area of the course has been rolled by the rear wheels. The rolling shall continue until the stone is thoroughly set, the interstices of the material reduced to a minimum, and until creeping of the stone ahead of the roller is no longer visible.
Rolling shall continue until the base material is compacted to a dry density of not less than 98% of the maximum dry density as determined by B.S.1377 Test No. 14. In-situ dry density tests shall be carded out in accordance with B.S.1377 Test No. 15 (B): sand replacement method using large pouring cylinder. Blading and rolling shall be done alternately to obtain a smooth, even and uniformly compacted base.
Subject to S.O.'s acceptance, the in-situ field density may be determined with nuclear device in accordance with ASTM D2950. The maximum density to be used shall be the average density of 3 laboratory compacted specimens. The in-situ percentage level of compaction shall be taken with respect to this maximum density. However, in the event that the nuclear device shows an in-situ percentage level of compaction above 100%, the maximum density shall be modified for that particular test to reflect the in-situ maximum density e.g. if the compaction indicated on the nuclear device is 105%, the maximum density to be used shall be 1.05 times of the maximum density derived from the laboratory compacted specimens. If more than 3 tests show in-situ percentage level of compaction exceeding 100%, the maximum density shall again be determined in the laboratory.
Samples of graded granite aggregates shall be taken at the rate of one per 100 m3 of graded granite aggregate laid and at least 3 samples shall be taken at each site in a day. For site where more than 400 m3 of graded granite aggregate is laid in a day, a maximum of 5 samples shall be taken. These samples shall be marked with the date laid and location identification, and tested at a laboratory accepted to the S.O. for compliance with this Specification.
Deduction of payment due to failure of Graded Granite Aggregate Base - within the specified Limits
Where any of the Gradation Analysis results fail to comply with the requirements stated in this Specification but within the specified limits, partial deduction of payment shall be imposed by the S.O. for all graded granite aggregate laid and represented by the unsatisfactory samples. Dedution of payment or Rejection of Material for Failure of Graded Granite Aggregate Base - Outside the Specified Limits

Where any of the Gradation Analysis results fail to comply with the requirements stated in this Specification and outside the specified limits, deduction of payment shall be imposed by the S.O. for all graded granite aggregate laid and represented by the unsatisfactory samples.
Notwithstanding the above, the S.O. shall have the final decision to reject the material without payment to the Contractor if such failures are drastically outside the specified limits and will impair the performance of the material seriously. In this case, the rejected material shall be removed from the site and replaced with new material at the Contractor's expense.

150 Asphaltic Wearing Course

Aggregates shall consist of crushed stone, crushed gravel or crushed slag with or without sand or other inert finely divided mineral aggregate. Aggregates can be divided into course aggregate, fine aggregate and mineral filler.
Coarse aggregate shall consist of sound, tough, durable particles, free from adherent coatings of clay, organic matter and other deleterious substances.
When tested in accordance with ASTM C131, it shall not show more than 40% wear. The sodium sulphate soundness loss shall not exceed 9% or shall the magnesium sulphate soundness loss exceed 12%, after five cycles, when tested in accordance with ASTM C88. Crushed coarse aggregate shall contain at least 75% by weight of pieces having at least two fractured faces. The area of each fractured face shall be equal to at least 75% of the smallest mid-sectional area of the piece. When two fractures are contiguous, the angle between the planes of fractures shall be at least 300 to be considered as two fractured faces.
Coarse aggregate shall contain not more than 8% by weight of flat or elongated pieces. A flat particle is one having a width to thickness ratio of greater than 5 and an elongated particle is one having a length to width ratio of greater than 5.
Slag used as coarse aggregate shall be air-cooled blast-­furnace slag and shall have a compacted weight of not less than 1.12 tonnes/m3 when tested in accordance with ASTM C29.
Fine aggregate shall consist of clean, sound durable, angular particles produced by crushing stone, slag or gravel and shall be free from coatings of clay, silt, clay balls or other deleterious matter.
Fine aggregate shall meet the soundness and wear requirements as specified for coarse aggregate.
The fine aggregate with any blended filler shall have a plasticity index not greater than 6, and a liquid limit of not more than 25 when tested in accordance with ASTM D4318 and in addition shall have a silt content of not greater than 0.3% of the total weight when tested in accordance with S.S.73. Natural sand, when added to produce the desired gradation or to increase the workability or compactability of the mixture shall be limited to 15% by weight to obtain optimum pavement properties.
Filler, in addition to those naturally present in the aggregate, shall meet the requirements of ASTM D242.
The bitumen emulsion shall be homogeneous after thorough mixing, for at least 30 days after delivery.
The bitumen emulsion shall be slow setting cationic bitumen emulsion.
All bitumen shall be accepted type petroleum bitumen of 60/70 penetration grade. No mineral matter other than that naturally contained in such bitumen shall be present. The bitumen shall be homogeneous, free from water and shall not foam when heated to 175°C.
The use of any admixture added to the asphaltic concrete mix shall be accepted by the S.O.. The Contractor shall furnish all relevant technical information and specifications regarding the admixture intended for use and he shall submit test reports on the admixture certified by an approved Highway Laboratory Authority. The authority testing the admixture may be from the same country where the produce is manufactured.
In addition, the S.O. may require the Contractor to submit further test data from an approved laboratory showing that the admixture to be used meets all of the requirements in this Specification. Also, subsequent tests shall be made on samples, taken by the S.O., from the supply of the admixture being furnished for the work, by local or overseas laboratory authorities, to determine whether the standard and quality of the admixture are in accordance with this Specification.
Any admixture which fails to comply with the requirements shall be rejected and removed from the pavement at the Contractor's expense. All costs incurred in testing shall be borne by the Contractor.
Water used in diluting the bitumen emulsion or wetting the wheels of rollers shall be clean, fresh and free from organic or inorganic matter in solution or suspension in such amounts that may impair the strength and durability of the asphaltic concrete.
Water shall be obtained from a public supply where possible and shall be taken from any other source only if approved. No sea water or water from excavation shall be used.
Asphalt Laying. After heating, the hot aggregate shall be thoroughly and intimately mixed together with filter and bitumen binder in the correct proportion until every particle of aggregate is completely coated. The total mixing time may only be reduced if the S.O. is satisfied that thorough mixing can be achieved in less time, in which case the Contractor shall obtain the S.O.'s written authority to reduce the mixing time to the specified periods. Extracted dust shall be automatically fed back into the dry or wet admixtures. When it satisfies the specified requirements for filler stipulated, it shall be weighed into the mixture as a separate proportion. All mixing plant shall incorporate means of access to each hot bin to enable samples to be taken. The aggregate after drying and heating in a drum dryer shall be screened into at least 3 different sizes. The aggregates shall then be stored in separate hot bins for subsequent batching by weight. The use of drum mix plant which does not incorporate this requirement shall be prohibited.
The asphaltic concrete after mixing, shall then be discharged directly into a truck and properly covered with a canvas cover. The temperature of the mix at this stage shall be between 140°C to 160°C. The asphaltic concrete shall be rejected at the Contractor's own cost if the temperature of the hotmix measured at the truck is above 160°C or below 140°C.
The Contractor shall furnish the S.O. in advance with full details of the bituminous paver to be used, including date of manufacture, model, whether tracked or wheeled, previous usage, maintenance facilities, and all other relevant particulars required by the S.O..
The bituminous paver shall be a self-contained, power propelled unit, provided with an adjustable activated screed or strike off assembly, heated if necessary and capable of spreading and finishing courses of bituminous plant mix materials in lane widths, to the specified thickness. The bituminous paver must be able to operate at various rates of travel consistent with the rate of delivery and the type of asphalt mixture to be laid. Pavers used for shoulders and similar construction shall be capable of spreading and finishing courses of bituminous plant mix materials in widths shown on the plans.
The paver shall be equipped with a receiving hopper having sufficient capacity for a uniform spreading operation. The hopper shall be equipped with a distribution system to place the mixture uniformly in front of the screed which shall effectively produce a surface finish without tearing, shoving or grazing the surface.
The Contractor shall equip and operate his paver with automatic level control system e.g. wire sensor, sensor shoe or other approved automatic level control system to effect very precise level control on the finished level for major projects such as continuous paving of a minimum of 500m length or rehabilitation of surface courses to ensure that good riding quality of the road are produced. Where automatic level control system is required the electronic screed control sensors must be installed on both sides of the paver capable of sensing grade from an outside reference line, sensing the transverse slope of the screed and providing the automatic signals which operate the screed to maintain the desired grade and transverse slope. The sensor shall be so constructed that it can be operated from a reference line or ski-line arrangement.

Compaction Plant

Rollers used for compaction shall be self-propelled and of types accepted by the S.O.. Rollers shall be in good condition, capable of reversing without backlash. The use of equipment which results in excessive crushing of the aggregate shall not be permitted.

The Contractor shall provide the following types of rollers:

- Static three-steel-wheeled, smooth-roll roller having a weight between 8 to 12 tonnes and a weight per mm width of rear wheel between 5.4 kg and 7.2 kg. - Two-steel-wheeled, smooth-roll tandem roller having a weight of between 8 and 12 tonnes and a weight per mm width of rear wheel between 3.5 kg and 7.2 kg.

- Self-propelled vibratory tandem roller with a net weight of 10 tonnes and static linear load in both drums of 30 N/mm. The roller shall be capable of transmitting vibrations at a rate between 2000 to 3000 vibrations per minute and giving amplitude of 0.4 to 0.8 mm.

- Self-propelled pneumatic rubber wheel tyred roller having a weight between 10 and 30 tonnes and with tyre pressure varying between 545 and 827 kN/m2.

The Contractor shall employ at least three rollers, one of each type specified in the preceding clause at one paving site for the compaction of asphalt concrete mixes while the works are in progress.

The Contractor shall provide a concrete cutting saw, which shall be maintained in good working condition. The Contractor shall provide the transportation of the concrete cutting saw to the site.

Mechanical sprayers operated by means of mechanical pumping apparatus shall be used to apply tack coat of bituminous emulsion onto the road. The emulsion shall be sprayed through a suitable nozzle to give a uniform application at the desired rate without atomisation.

Prior to the application of my prime/tack coat or spreading of the asphaltic concrete on any surface, such surface shall be thoroughly cleaned and dried, and kept free from any loose or otherwise surplus materials, such as any loose granite dust or filler materials on the base course surface. Adherent patches of foreign materials shall be removed from the surface by the use of a scrapper or other suitable method. All waste materials removed from the surface shall be properly disposed of forthwith by the Contractor.

The surface where the asphalt paving is to be laid shall be thoroughly swept, brushed, dried and cleared of all loose stones and foreign material.

Where the base is irregular and uneven, it shall be brought to uniform grade and cross section as directed. Potholes and depressions in existing roads shall be repaired by removing all defective material to sound pavement and replaced with asphalt aggregate patching material. All materials used for patching works shall be measured and paid separately.

All premix which has been laid on the previous day/night shall be powersaw cut back by at least 150mm in a straight line and prime with a coat of bituminous emulsion prior to laying of asphaltic concrete.

All manholes, kerbs, channels and other projections against which asphalt paving is to be laid shall be cleaned and primed with a thin coat of bituminous emulsion. Where a manhole cover is lower than the premix surface, the Contractor shall provide a wooden frame to demarcate its position so that this can be recognised and raised subsequently by the respective Utility Agency.

The Contractor shall, prior to commencement of work, inspect the site with the attending supervisor to mark, distinguish and indicate by paint on the road kerb or footpath the types of manholes and distance of it from the indicated point.

151 Tack Coat

The Contractor shall supply and apply a suitable prime coat/tack coat of cationic bitumen emulsion of slow setting type (CSS-1) diluted with equal parts of water, to all surfaces receiving the asphalt paving after such surfaces have been thoroughly cleaned and dried.

The emulsion shall be uniformly applied by means of a mechanical sprayer at the specified rate of application. Any excess or unevenly distributed bitumen shall be removed from the surface to be paved.

The bitumen emulsion shall be applied on only as much pavement as can be covered with asphalt paving at one time. It shall be allowed a period of not less than 10 minutes 'to break' before asphalt concrete can be laid. The prime coat/tack coat of bitumen emulsion shall be sprayed at rates of 1.14 litre/m2 and 0.54 litre/m2 for aggregate base course surface and premix surface respectively immediately prior to the laying of the asphaltic concrete.

152 Premix Surfacing

The premix surfacing shall be 75mm thick premix base course surface Type B1 and 25mm thick premix wearing course surfacing Type W3 to LTA standard. The asphaltic bitumen shall be of 60/70 penetration. No bitumen shall be used which varies by more than plus or minus 5 points from this penetration and shall conform to the requirements of the British Standard 434.

Filler shall consist only of Portland Cement on B.S. No. 12/1957 unless otherwise permitted in writing by the S.O. and at least 65% pass a No. 200 British Standard Sieve.
Sand shall consist of approved clean quarry sand produced in a secondary crushing plant, or approved clean natural sand properly washed free of all impurities. Sand, for purpose of this Contract, shall be taken as all material passing a 3mm British Standard Sieve and retained on a No. 200 British Standard Sieve.
Stone shall consist of clean well-graded angular crushed granite of approved quality, free form dust, dirt and/or other deleterious materials and free from an excess of flat elongated or weather pieces.

The mix shall conform to the following requirements:-

Granite stone content 25mm, 19mm, etc. 50%
Sand 34% - 39%
Cement filler 7% - 9%
Bitumen 30/40 6.5% - 7.5%
The largest size stone should be 25mm and the grading shall be as follows:-
B.S. Sieve Percentage by Wt. Passing
38mm 100
25mm 95 - 100
19mm 55 - 85
13mm 35 - 70
10mm 20 - 40
6mm 5 - 15
3mm 0 - 10

(a) As previously stated in the Specification all the reinstatement works are to comply with the requirements of LTA Road Management and shall be carried out under the supervision of and to the satisfaction of LTA Road Management.
(a) These requirements will be deemed to form part of the Contract Specification.

Immediately following the spreading of the premix, the initial compaction will be done to the full width by rolling with a 3-wheel power roller weighing six (6) tonnes. The rolling shall progress gradually from the lower side of the road to the highest point. Rolling shall continue until no movement under the rear wheel is noticeable buy should be discontinued prior to excessive crushing of the stone. Places inaccessible to the roller shall be tamped thoroughly with mechanical or hand tempers which shall weigh not less than 22kg and having a face of not more than 0.06 sq metre.

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Turfing

153 Top Soil
The area to be turfed shall be clean, weeded and all weeded materials, together with stones, wood, rubbish and other undesirable excavated materials, shall be removed and deposited in the approved dumping grounds. The ground shall be levelled until uniform.
Good quality topsoil, free from rubbish, roots, stumps, stones and other extraneous materials, shall be spread evenly to a thickness of 200mm and lightly watered. The topsoil shall be tamped and consolidated with wooden tampers. The finished area should be level and uniform. Turfing should commence as soon as the topsoil is spread. If delayed, and should there be wet weather, the topsoil will be washed away or eroded. If this happens the topsoil will have to be replaced, before the commencement of turfing.
154 Grass
(a) TYPE OF GRASS TO BE USED
The only type of grass acceptable for transplanting shall be Axanopus compressus (Cow Grass).
The grass shall be of healthy and vigorous stock from approved sources removed in tufts 75-100mm across.
(b) SUPPLY AND FIXING OF TURF
The grass of turf shall be cut neatly in square. The dimensions of each cut sod shall be 0.3m x 0.3m, with a thickness of not less than 50mm. Each sod of turf shall be free from weeds especially Mimosa pudica, Imperata cylindrica (lallang) and Eleusine indica. In removal of the stock, the plan shall be damaged as little as possible, care being taken to include as much of the root growth as is possible. Immediately following removal, the stock shall be transplanted adjacent to each other, with a gap not exceeding 30mm between adjoining turves. After the stock is placed in position on the ground, it shall be properly pegged down to prevent displacement of any kind. Topsoil shall be spread evenly on top of the turf, up to 25mm thickness. The area where the turfing is completed will present a uniform and regular appearance if so directed by the S.O. In planting, a trowel shall be used to dig a sufficiently deep hole in the bed to take the whole of the root system without damaging or distorting it. The removed soil shall be carefully placed back around the plan and firmly pressed into position to embed the plant securely. Where grass is grown in areas where there is no top soil, the grass shall be effectively keyed into the holes. Immediately following transplanting, if it does not rain the newly planted turf shall be thoroughly watered. When the grass has stuck and after the approval of the S.O has been obtained, the whole of the turfed areas shall be thoroughly rolled with an approved garden roller.
(c) MAINTENANCE OF TURF

(i) Before Turf Is Established
The area turfed shall be watered daily except during wet weather until the turf is established. As soon as the grass has grown sufficiently, it should be cut closely following the general contour of the ground. The grass after the cut, shall not be higher than 20mm above the ground. The initial round of grass cutting shall be followed by other rounds at regular intervals of two (2) weeks. This practice shall be continued for a period of three months after the turf is established. Prior to each round of grass cutting all weeds like Mimosa Pudica and other shall be pulled by the roots.

(ii) After the Turf Is Established Including The Period During D.L.P. After three months growth the grass shall be cut once per month during the last week of each month until the end of the D.L.P.. Throughout the D.L.P. the turfing shall be maintained by removing all dead turfts and weeds by the Contractor at least twice per month and replacing with new stock.
Completion Work
155 Cleaning UpThe Contractor shall leave every part of the Site in a clean, tidy and sound condition and make good any damage to adjoining public or private properties resulting from the works at his own expense and to the satisfaction of the S.O.. The Contractor shall be given 3 days from the time of notification, in writing, to rectify the defects within the said time. The S.O. reserves the right to employ other contractors to rectify the defects and all costs incurred shall be deducted from monies due to the Contractor.

156 Final Inspection

(a) Following the foregoing cleaning up the whole of the work shall be subjected to a detailed inspection by the S.O. who shall be accompanied by the Contractor or his representative.
(b) Any defects found during the final inspection of the work shall be rectified at required by the S.O.. The work shall then be again cleaned and re-inspected.
(c) Only when the whole of the works are clean and free from defect will the S.O. agree to the issue of a Certificate of Substantial Completion.

157 Maintenance Period Inspection

a) One month before the end of the Contract Maintenance Period the Contractor shall advise the S.O. of the expiry date.
(b) The Contractor shall arrange for the cleaning up of the works where necessary, the opening up and ventilation of the work and the provision of all necessary ladders etc., required for inspection of the work.
(c) The S.O. will inspect the works accompanied by the Contractor or his representative.
(d) Any defects resulting from faulty materials or workmanship used in the execution of the works shall be rectified as required by the S.O.. The works shall then be again cleaned and inspected. No release of monies or final approval of the works will be given until the S.O. is completely satisfied with the quality of the works.
(e) The Contractor's attention is drawn to the fact that he is required to fully insure the inspection and any necessary repair works at the end of the maintenance period as an integral part of the Contract works. Maintenance period will not be considered as over until after the inspection is carried out and all remedial works, if any, are completed by the Contractor.
(f) During the maintenance (Defects Liability) period, the Contractor is responsible for the cleansing, desilting and free flow of water in the drains constructed. In any case, unless specified otherwise, the Contractor is to desilt the drain at least twice for a 6-month Maintenance (Defects Liability) Period and at least 4 times for a 12-month Maintenance (Defects Liability) Period. The Contractor is to inform the S.O., and to arrange for a joint inspection after each desilting of the drain.

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Appendix "A"

Requirements for Permanent Reinstatement

1 Application

These requirements will apply to the reinstatement of the existing roads which have been excavated or disturbed during the course of construction of the drains and which must be made good to the required standards on completion of the drainage works.

2 Requirement

3 Advice of Commencement of Work

The S.O. shall be informed by the Contractor in advance of the actual proposed date of commencement of each individual job in order that inspectors can be detailed to check on the program of the works.

4 Obstruction

The Contractors shall cause as little obstruction as possible to the general public during the execution of all work under this Contract and shall pay due regard to the interests and convenience of the public and of all private persons who have property in, or are resident in the neighbourhood of the works.

5 Lighting, Watching & Protection

(a) The Contractor shall provide and properly maintain all lighting and fencing for the proper protection, guidance and safety of the Public, at all times during the progress of the reinstatement works.
(b) Wherever necessary the Contractor shall provide flagmen and suitable signals for the proper control and guidance of traffic to the satisfaction of the S.O..

6 Supply of Granite

The Contractor must supply his requirements of granite for use in the reinstatement works and all such granite shall be of the proper size and grading and shall satisfy the S.O. before it can be used in the works.

7 Hotmix Asphalt

The Contractor shall make his own arrangements for the supply of hotmix asphalt mixture. The mixture shall be in accordance to the graph which shows the required grading.

8 Material for Hotmix Asphalt

(a) All bitumen shall be approved type asphaltic bitumen of either 60/70 penetration and/or 80/100 penetration (measured at 25ºC in both cases). All bitumen shall be in straight-run bitumen prepared only by the refining of asphaltic-base petroleum and such refining shall not involve the "cracking" process. No mineral matter other than that naturally contained in such bitumen shall be present. The bitumen shall be of uniform quality, free from water and shall not foam when heated to 175ºC. The Contractor must state the country or countries of origin of all bitumen supplied, and the price paid for such bitumen, prior to its use in the works.

(b) All bitumen shall meet the following requirements:-

Item Description 60/70 Penetration Grade 80/100 Penetration Grade
1 Penetration at 25ºC 100 gms 5 seconds 60-70 80-100
2 Flash point (Cleveland Open Cup) 230ºC (Min) 220ºC(Min)
3 Loss on heating for 5 hours at 163ºC 1% (Max) 1.5% (Max)
4 Penetration after loss on heating (25ºC 100 gms 5 seconds) 70% of original Penetration (Min ) 70% of Original Penetration (Min)
5 Ductility at 25ºC at 5 gms per minute 90cms (Min) 30cms (Min)
6 Solubility in Carbon Tetrachloride 99.5% (Min) 99.5% (Min)

(a) Tests for the above properties shall be carried out as far as practicable in accordance with the methods set in the current edition of "Standard Methods of Testing Petroleum and its Products" as issued by the Institute of Petroleum.

(b) Mineral Filler shall consist of crushed rockfines or Portland Cement to S.S.26. At least 85% of cement filler, shall pass a 200 B.S Sieve and filler shall be thoroughly dry and shall be free from organic matter and clay particles.

(c) Fine aggregate shall consist of approved clean well-graded granite fines produced in a secondary crushing plant, or approved clean natural sand properly washed free of all impurities. Fine aggregate, for the purposes of this Contract, shall be taken as all materials passing a 3.35mm British Standard Sieve and retained on No. 200 British Standard Sieve.

(d) Coarse Aggregate shall consists of clean, well-graded, angular, crushed granite of approved quality, free from dust, dirt, and/or other deleterious materials, and free from an excess of flat, elongated or weathered pieces. Coarse aggregate for the purpose of this Contract, shall be taken as all material retained on a 3.35mm British Standard Sieve.

9 Asphalt Mixing and Delivery

(a) The Contractor shall furnish the S.O. in advanced with full details of all asphalt mixing plant/s to be used, including average output capacity, type, age, maintenance facilities and all other relevant particulars required by the S.O.. The mixing plant to be used shall have an average output capacity of not less than 50 tonnes per hour.

(b) The appropriate mix required for each work shall be selected by the S.O. from the Table of Mixes given in this Specification. Wherever considered advisable, the S.O. may vary the specified proportions of coarse and fine aggregate within a range of ± 10% and the Contractor shall NOT be entitled to any extra payment nor suffer any reduction in payment on this account.

(c) The S.O. may vary the percentage filler to be used within a range of ± 2% and the Contractor shall NOT be entitled to any extra or reduced payment on this account.

(d); The S.O. may likewise vary the percentage of bitumen to be used, whereupon the price paid for the work shall be adjusted by him in accordance with the change in bitumen content ordered, based only on the nett purchase price paid by the contractor for the bitumen being used. If this price is greater than the ruling nett purchase price of bitumen at the time of variation, than the latter price shall be adopted for the purposes of calculating the value of any such variations.

(e) All aggregate of the requisite sizes and grading shall be thoroughly dried and fed at a temperature of 150ºC -190ºC into a mechanical mixer of approved type. An accurately registering pyrometer shall be installed at a suitable point at the discharge end of the drier with a registering device as located as to indicate clearly the temperature of the coarse and fine aggregate when discharged. The bitumen shall be heated, in an approved type of boiler, to a temperature of 135ºC - 163ºC and shall thereafter be added, together with the required proportion of filler, to the coarse and fine aggregate, and all ingredients shall be thoroughly and efficiently mixed together until complete coating of all aggregate and filler with the bitumen has been achieved. The S.O. or his authorised representative shall have access at all times to the asphalt mixing plant/s, and shall at liberty to take such samples of materials as considered necessary from time to time to verify the proper operation thereof.

(f) It is particularly important to avoid excessive heating of the bitumen binder as this will lead to hardening of the binder and result in a shortening of the useful life of the pavement. In all cases temperature should be kept as low as is consistent with mixing and laying.

(a) The asphalt, after proper mixing, shall then be discharged from the mixer direct into a tipping truck of suitable dimensions, for transportation to the worksite. The temperature of the mix on arrival at such worksite shall not be less than 120ºC. The Contractor shall provide an adequate number of accurate thermometers for checking the temperature of bitumen, hotmix asphalt, etc., as directed by the S.O..

(b) Vehicles used for transporting the asphalt shall be thoroughly cleaned free of all foreign materials immediately prior to loading with render the load/s of asphalt liable to rejection.

10 Extend of Permanent Reinstatement

(a) The Contractor will be required to carry out complete reinstatement in roads, as specified for the whole of the disturbed area of the trench and all other existing foundation of the road surface has failed or been severely damaged.

(b); For other areas in roads where in the opinion of the S.O. settlement has taken place without the failure of the road foundation, partial reinstatement shall be carried out as specified.

11 Complete Reinstatement in Roads

Where complete reinstatement in roads is required the Contractor shall excavated to 750mm below finished level, supply and consolidated to 200mm with approved filling material to subgrade level; provide and lay 100mm compacted sand sub-base; supply, lay, roll and blind granite block base course to 375mm consolidated thickness; supply and apply bitumen emulsion tack coat at a rate of 1.8m²/litre and supply, lay and roll to 75mm minimum consolidated thickness hotmix asphalt paving.

12 Partial Reinstatement in Road

(a)Where partial reinstatement in roads is required the contractor shall cut back to a straight and neat edge the existing surfacing; supply and apply bitumen emulsion tack cost at a rate of 1.8m²/litre, taking care to completely coat the cut back edge of the existing surfacing and supply, lay and roll hotmix asphalt paving to make up to the original road levels to the satisfaction of the S.O..

(b) Where the make up of asphalt in partial reinstatement will exceed 100mm thickness the Contractor shall remove all existing surfacing, scarify the existing foundation, supply, lay, roll and blind granite crusher run of approved size and grading to the required levels; supply and apply bitumen emulsion tack coat at a rate of 1.8m²/litre and supply, lay and roll to 500mm minimum consolidated thickness hotmix asphalt paving to the required finished thickness.

13 Maintenance of Trenches prior to Permanent Reinstatement

(a) The Contractor is entirely responsible for, and answerable to the S.O. for, the proper maintenance and good condition of each trench, until the permanent reinstatement work is carried out and completed and thereafter for the duration of the Contract and Maintenance Period.

(b) All trenches prior to, and during reinstatement shall be watered, brushed and maintenance, while open to the traffic, in a sound and firm condition, free from depression, humps, loose stones, and/or any other similar defects, and such as not to constitute a danger or unreasonable nuisance to traffic or members of the public. Loose materials and stones shall not be permitted to accumulate over or around any trench, but shall be promptly swept clear and the trench surface levelled, watered and properly tamped with suitable cast iron hand rammers at regular intervals.

(c) The Contractor shall be required to maintain a small mobile gang of workmen for the above-mentioned purposes, and a regular system of daily inspection shall be instituted, of all trenches reinstatement. Where any trench is found to be defective and to constitute a traffic hazard in any way, then the S.O. shall have the power to attend forth-with to such trench, and the entire cost of such work shall be borne by the Contractor.

14 Excavation & Backfilling

(a) Each trench shall be excavated to a minimum of 150mm below the required sub-grade level and sufficient approved quality backfilling material supplied, spread, and well-rammed in 175mm layers with 12 kg cast-iron hand rammers. After thorough consolidation has been achieved, the backfilling shall be levelled and trimmed to the required levels. Where the base course granite is to be laid, then a 50mm layer of unwashed sand or granite dust shall then be spread and tamped over the floor of the trench, ready to take the granite base course.

(b) Where the backfilling is to be brought up to finished ground level, as in earth road and side table reinstatement, etc., then the backfilling shall be built up to approximately 50mm above finished ground level and the trench shall be thoroughly rolled until no movement occurs under the roller. The backfilling shall then be trimmed and levelled to finished ground level or up to 12mm thereabove.

15Removal of all excavated material

Only selected materials including granite, blocks, excavated metal hardcore shall be permitted to be re-used in the work. All excess material shall be removed following completion of trench work.

16 Roller and Rolling

(a) The Contractor shall provide and maintain for the works approved type road rollers each not less than eight (8) tonnes gross weight, during the entire period required for the reinstatement works.
(b) These rollers shall be in sound mechanical condition, and shall be operated, by qualified, experienced and capable drivers, where, when and in the manner directed by the S.O. in order to maintain the temporary and permanent reinstatement and thoroughly consolidated the reinstatement works as they proceed.

17 Base Course

(a) Crushed or block granite shall be delivered by the Contractor and laid in the trench over the sand sub-base, by hand packing tightly to the required depth. A temporary layer of crushed granite shall then be placed over the top of such base course, in order to bring the level above that of the surrounding road surface to enable rolling to be carried out. Rolling shall therefore proceed and shall continue until interlocking of all base course metal is achieved and there is no sign of movement under the roller.

(b) The temporary crushed granite layer shall then be removed, and the base course shall be blinded with a mix of one (1) part laterite to three (3) parts granite dust, which shall be swept and brushed course hand brooms into all the interstices between the stone. Watering and brushing shall proceed until all voids have been filled with the blinding material and the finished surface is true to the required levels, and present a dense hard compact appearance, free from irregularities and from any loose material. All excess blinding material shall be thoroughly blushed off to expose the top surfaces of the granite particles.

(c) Where the application of the tack coat, and the laying of the hotmix asphalt surfacing, are carried out (with the permission of the S.O.) some time after the completion of the granite base course, then the temporary crushed granite layer or other approved filling shall be replaced in the trench to bring up the level up to that of the adjacent road surface. This material shall be rolled and if necessary blinded with suitable fine material to bind the surface, so that the traffic can safely pass across the trench until such time as the final asphalt surfacing is provided.

18 Tack Coat

(a) The Contractor shall supply and lay a tack coat of either bitumen emulsion from the approved sources, or a cut-back or straight run bitumen of the specified penetration, to the base course surface, and to the exposed sides of the trench, immediately prior to the spreading of hotmix asphalt.

(b) The surface shall be thoroughly swept and cleaned before the application, and the tack coat shall be applied uniformly and evenly at the specified rate of application.

(c) Any excess or unevenly distributed bitumen shall be removed from the surface at the Contractor's own expense.

19 Hotmix Asphalt Surfacing

(a) The surface course shall consist of hotmix asphalt as specified. Any hotmix asphalt which does not comply with the Specification shall not be used in the work. Any hotmix asphalt which has been laid and found not to conform to the quality as specified shall be removed and replaced with hotmix manufactured to comply with the Specification all at the Contractor's expenses.

(b) No asphalt shall be laid until the surface has been thoroughly cleaned and is perfectly dry.

(c) Asphalt shall be collected, as and when required by the Contractor, delivered, unloaded and spread in and over the trench to the required depth and then thoroughly rolled while still hot, with a roller of not less than 6 tonnes weight until no further consideration of the asphalt can be obtained.

(d) All rolling shall proceed at a sufficiently slow speed as to avoid pushing or shoving of the asphalt mix, and no oil shall be used at all time on the wheels of the roller. The finished level shall be either flushed with the adjoining road surface or up to a maximum of 6mm above such level.

(e) Newly compacted asphalt surfacing shall be protected from traffic for at least six (6) hours or until it has properly cooled and stiffened. The S.O.'s requirements in this regard shall be final.

(f) All manholes, kerbs, channels and other projections against which the hotmix asphalt is to be laid, shall first be cleaned and painted with a thin coating of bitumen emulsion. The asphalt mix shall then be carefully tamped around and against all such projections by means of hot 12kg cast iron tampers and the finished surface left either flush up to a maximum of 6mm above such projects.

20 Top soiling and Turfing

(a) As and when directed, the Contractor shall provide, spread and tamp approved quality good loamy topsoil over and if necessary adjacent to any trench which passes through sidetables berms slopes etc.

(b) The Contractor shall also, provide and fix approved quality grass turves as close turfing over such areas so as to be uniform and continuous including pegging down, as directed, to prevent displacements and shall carry out all watering and tending until all turf is growing satisfactorily.

21 Reinstatement of Drains & Precast Unit

(a) The Contractor shall carry out all the reinstatement of existing precast channel drains, revetment slabs, dividers, kerbs, etc which has been affected by any trench opening.

(b) All units shall be bedded if necessary on 25mm bed of unwashed sand, and shall be replaced true to original line and level, and all joints grouted with (1:3) cement and mortar.

22 Concrete for Reinstatement Work

All concrete used in road reinstatement works shall consist of normal Portland Cement fine aggregate (sand), coarse granite aggregate (crushed granite) and clean water in a Class "A" concrete mix as specified elsewhere in the Specification.

23 Reinstatement of Other Surface

The Contractor will be required to reinstate all surfaces etc. disturbed but which are not elsewhere covered by the Specification to their original condition using similar materials in similar thickness and forms.

24 Inspection of Completion Work

On proper completion of each item of work, the Contractor shall officially notify the S.O. or his representatives, within two (2) days of such day of completion so that inspection of the site can be carried out, to ascertain whether or not the work has been completed in a satisfactory manner.

25 Maintenance of Surface

(a) The Contractor's attention is drawn to the fact that he will be required to maintain all the reinstatement for the full period of the Contract and Maintenance Period of six (6) months after the completion of all the works and all faults, settlements etc, developing within this period shall be made good immediately.

(b) The Contractor's attention is also drawn again to the fact that he will be liable to all claims for injury or damage arising from the defect in the reinstated road surface during the Contract and Maintenance Period and the Contractor will be required to take out insurances to cover all such claims.

 
Last updated on 27 Oct 2010