R&D in PUB takes place at three levels:
Level 1: Upstream Fundamental Research
Partner with tertiary and research institutes in R&D projects with direct interest in PUB’s operations.
Level 2: Pilot Scale Studies
An extension of fundamental research work whereby a laboratory proven concept is tested in actual field conditions via an appropriately-sized unit.
Level 3: Demo Plant Studies
Subject to a successful pilot-study, PUB may consider moving on with a demonstration-scale study. A pilot plant may be constructed and put into operation to test for operational and process challenges, if any. Issues and solutions identified will be used to improve the designs of a full-scale plant if it is put into actual operation.