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Under the Mandatory Water Efficiency Management Practices (MWEMP), large water users have to submit details of their water consumption, business activity indicators and water efficiency plans to PUB annually. With these collected data, PUB is able to develop sectoral water efficiency benchmarks for hotels, office buildings, retail operations, wafer fabrication and semiconductor plants, commercial laundry, data centres, and biomedical manufacturing facilities.

How is WEI Calculated?

The WEI serves as a performance indicator for water efficiency, and it refers to the amount of water used per business activity indicator*.

WEI = Total amount of water consumed / business activity indicator

*Business activity indicator – A measure of business activity that takes into account the business operations of the water user.

2021 Sectoral Water Efficiency Benchmarks

Sector Median Value
Office Buildings (with Water-Cooled Cooling Tower) 1.0 m3 / m2 / year
Retail 1.3 m3 / m2 / year
2.5 L / p / d
4-star Hotels (with Water-Cooled Cooling Tower) 0.35 m3 / Guestnight
5-star Hotels (with Water-Cooled Cooling Tower) 0.62 m3 / Guestnight
Primary Schools 10.6 L / p / d
Secondary Schools 12.8 L / p / d
Junior Colleges 11.5 L / p / d
Data Centres 2.4 m3 / MWh
Commercial Laundries 13.5 m3 / tonne
  Average Recycling Rates
Wafer Fabrication Plants 43%
Semiconductors (excluding Wafer Fabrication Plants) 27%
Biomedical Manufacturing 14%

Disclaimer: The figures indicated in the table may exclude tenants’ usage.

Download the 2021 Sectoral Water Efficiency Benchmarks.