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Source and Network


Domestic used water comprises mainly sewage and sullage water. These are generated from households and commercial premises such as hotels, restaurants, shops through activities such as cooking and washing.

Industrial used water is the trade effluent generated by factories from manufacturing process. Trade effluent discharge is controlled through the Trade Effluent Regulations under the Sewerage and Drainage Act. Industries may have to pretreat the trade effluent to remove any chemical or undesirable pollutants to meet the discharge standards stipulated in the regulations before it is discharged into the public sewer.



The sewerage network collects used water from domestic and non-domestic (e.g.industrial, commercial, etc) sources.

The used water is channelled, through a combination of gravity sewers and pumping stations, to the water reclamation plants where it is treated to international standards. Part of this treated used water, which is safe enough to be returned to nature, is sent to a separate treatment system at the NEWater Plants. The remaining is sent back to the sea. 

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