Singapore has no natural water resources. As it is about 710 km2, the island nation lacks the space to collect and store all the rain that falls on it. Through a network of rivers, canals and drains, rain that falls on two-thirds of Singapore's land area is channelled to our 17 reservoirs.
Two Separate Collection Systems
Singapore has two separate systems to collect rainwater and used water.
1. Rainwater is collected through a comprehensive network of drains, canals and rivers and channelled to the reservoirs before it is treated for drinking water.
2. Used water is collected in a network of underground sewers that lead to a water reclamation plant. Separate systems ensure that the waterways are free of pollution.
Harnessing Reservoirs and Rivers
Since 2011, the water catchment area has increased from half to two-thirds of Singapore’s land surface with the completion of the Marina, Punggol and Serangoon Reservoirs. In the long run, our water catchment area will increase from two-thirds to 90% of Singapore’s land area. Most of this will be made up of unprotected catchments which are land where development is allowed, for example, for residential, commercial and non-pollutive industrial purposes.
Tracking Water Quality
PUB actively tracks the raw water quality in its reservoirs through sampling and online sensors. Regular water quality tests are conducted on the raw reservoir water.